Tuesday, 29 August 2017

Forebrain developmental abnormalities

  • Abnormally large brain
  • Less common than microencephaly 
  • Abnormally small brain
  • Lots of causes (chromosomal abnormalities, fetal alcohol syndrome, HIV acquired in utero)
  • Decrease in number of gyri
  • Sometimes gyri are totally absent (agyria)
  • Small, numerous, irregularly formed gyri
  • Can be caused by injury or genetic abnormality
Neuronal heterotopias
  • Neurons in inappropriate locations along migrational pathways
  • Associated with epilepsy
  • Incomplete separation of cerebral hemispheres across the midline
  • May have midline facial abnormalities (e.g., cyclopia, absence of olfactory cranial nerves)
Agenesis of the corpus callosum

  • Absence of white matter bundles connecting cerebral hemispheres
  • Patients may have other defects, or may be asymptomatic

Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Criterias & classifications

1.Halls criteria : Downs syndrome
2.Dukes criteria: Endocarditis/Heart failure
3.Butchers criteria :mesothelioma
4.Ann Arbours classifiacation :Hodgki.s lymphoma
5.Bismuth classification: tumors of hepatic ductal system
6.Nazers Index: Wilsons disz
7.Pagets Index : Abruptio placentae
8.Quetlet index: BMI -wt in kg/ht in meter square
9.Ponderial Index: ht in cm/cube root of body wt in kgs
10.Brocas index : Ht in cms-100
11.Corpulence index : Actual wt/desired wt
12Milans crjteria: for liver transplant in HCC
13.Mayers n cottons grading system: Subglottic stenosis
14.Spaldings criteria: abdominal pregnancy
15.GCS/Ransons criteria/APACHE score: Pancreatitis
16.Ennekings staging : Bone tumors
17.Mc Donald's criteria: Multiple Sclerosis
18.Epworths criteria : Sleep apnea
19.Framminghams criteria/Boston's criteria: CHF
20.Durie salmon system of staging: Multiple myeloma
21.Lights criteria: pleural effusion
22.GOLD's criteria :COPD
23.OKUDA staging : HCC
24.Child's Turcott pug score/MELD/PELD- Cirrhosis of liver
25.Mantrles criteria/Alvarado score: Appendicitis
26.Evan's stagng: Neuroblastoma
27.FAB: Leukemias
28.Glisson's staging: Prostrate
29.Robson's staging : RCC
30.NADA's criteria: ASD assesment of child for heart disease
31.Rye classification: Hodgkins lymphoma
32.Chang staging: Medulloblastoma
33.Jackson's ataging :Penile Carcinoma
34.Seddons classification: Nerve injury n regeneration
35.Larren's classification:Gastric Ca
36.Neer's classification: supracondylar# femur
37.Gartland's classification: Supracondylar # Humerus
38.Amsel's criteria: bacterial vaginosis
39.Mallampati scoring: for intubation
40.Forrest classification: peptic ulcer bleed
41.Hess & Hunt Scale: subarachnoid hemorrhage
42.Duke staging : colon cancer
43.Rotterdam's criteria : PCOS
44.LEEFORDT's classification : facial #
45.wells criteria: pulmonary embolism
46.Rule of wallace/Rule of 9: Burns
47.Mansons classification: Radial head #
48.Stanford classifi ation: Aortic dissection
49.Rockall scoring: adverse out come after GI bleed
50.Glasgow Blatchford score : UGI bleed for medical intervention
51.Waterlows classification: Malnutrition in children