Sunday, 19 February 2017

One liners

MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung
MCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinoma
MCC of hepatic mets from GIT – Colonic ca
MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?
MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis
MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess
MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst
MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint
MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma
MC Glycogen storage disease-Gaucher’s disease
MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.
MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease
MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.
MC cancer-Lung cancer
MC cancer in females-Breast cancer
MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)
MC cause of Blindness in India-Catarac

High yield-Most common

Most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patient undergoing major vasculr surgery is- CARDIAC COMPLICATIONS
Most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis is-HSV-1
Most common cause of viral meningitis or aseptic meningitis is- ENTERO VIRUS
Most common cause of neonatal sepsis in hospitals in India is- KLEBSIELLA
The Mc abnormal opthalmoscopic findings on fundoscopY in AIDS pt is- COTTON WOOL SPOTS
Mc severe ocular complication of AIDS is- CMV RETINITIS
Mc cause of NOSOCOMIAL inf is- STAPH. AUREUS.
Mc sinusitis in children is- ETHMOIDAL.
Mc sinusitis in adults is -MAXILLARY.
Mc Site of ca tongue is MIDDLE OF LATERAL BORDER or VENTRAL ASPECT of tongue.
Mc MALIGNANT TU of adult males in india-ORAL CANCER
Mc MALIGNANT cancer of adult males in WORLD IS-LUNG CA
Mc MALIGNANT cancer of female in india is – CA CERVIX
Mc MALIGNANT cancer of female in WORLD IS -CA BREAST
Most common indication for splenectomy is -Splenic trauma.
Most common cause of cholangitis is -CBD stone
Most common cause of pancreatitis is- Gall stone
Most common cause of pancreatic pseudocyst is -Pancreatitis
Mc cause of myeloproliferative disorder –Polycythemia vera
Mc cause of stroke — Thrombosis >Embolism
Mc of RBC enzyme def. — G6PD def.
Mc variant of HL in INDIA — Mixed cellulatity
Mc urinary fistula-VESICOVAGINAL
Mc cause of VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA in india- Obstructed labour
Mc side effect of IUCD- BLEEDING   2ND MC side effect is PAIN
Mc site of ENDOMETRIOSIS is Ovary   2nd MC site is POUCH OF DOUGLAS
Mc cause of Post menopausal bleeding in DEVELOPED COUNTRIES is -CA ENDOMETRIUM.
Mc cause of post menopausal bleeding in DEVELOPING COUNTRIES(INDIA) is- CA CERVIX
Mc site of genital TB-FALLOPIAN TUBE.
Mc symptom of genital TB is- INFERTILITY
Most common lobe involved in BPH is- MEDIAN.
Mc long term complication of TURP IS- RETROGRADE EJACULATION

Entrapment Syndrome -Nerve involved

Entrapment Syndrome -Nerve involved
Carpal tunnel syndrome -Median nerve (at wrist) (Most Common)
Pronator syndrome -Median nerve (proximally compressed beneath - ligament of struthers, bicipital aponeurosis or origins of pronator teres or flexor digitorum superficialis)
Cubital tunnel syndrome -Ulnar nerve (between two heads of flexor carpi ulnaris)
Guyon's canal syndrome- Ulnar nerve (at wrist)
Thoracic outlet syndrome
Lower trunk of brachial plexus, (C8 and T1) and subclavian vessels (between clavicle and first rib)
Piriformis syndrome -Scaitic nerve
Meralgia paraesthetica -Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
Cheralgia paraesthetica -superficial radial nerve
Tarsal tunnel syndrome -Posterior tibial nerve (behind and below medial malleolus) 
Morton's metatarsalgia -lnterdigital nerve compression (usually of 3rd, 4th toe)


RNA is prepared from cells, reverse transcribed to cDNA, and labelled with fluorescent dyes .
Green dye for normal and red dye is for cancer cells.
The fluorescent probes are mixed and hybridized to a cDNA array.
Each spot on the array is an oligonucleotide (or cDNA fragment) that represents a different gene.
Image is captured by fluorescence camera where:
a) Red spot indicates higher expression in tumor cells.
b) Green spot indicates lower expression in tumor cells.
c) Yellow spot indicates equal expression level in both normal and tumor samples

Flow cytometry markers :

Flow cytometry markers :
CD1a, S-100, CD-207(Langherin)- Langerhan cell histiocytosis
CD 2 3 4 5 7 8- T-cell markers,CD3 is pan T cell marker
CD10 (aka CALLA antigen) : Early pre B marker,immature B cell marker
CD 11c, 25, 103, 123 : Hairy cell lukemia (CD 123 Most specific)
CD 13,33,117, MPO: Myeloid series marker-AML
CD 14,64: Monocyte marker (AML-M4 M5)
CD 15 : RS cell,Neutrophils
CD 15,30 : RS Cell
CD 16,56: NK Cell
CD 19,20,21,22 : B Cell markers, CD 19 is pan B cell marker
CD 23+,CD 5+ : CLL/SLL
CD 23-,CD 5+ : Mantle cell lymphoma
CD 30(only) aka Ki-antigen : Anaplastic Large cell lymphoma
CD 31: Endothelial cell marker (positive in angiosarcomas)
CD 34: Stem cell (also positive in angiosarcomas)
CD 41,61: Megakaryocyte,platelet marker,positive in AML-M7
CD 45 : On all leukocytes(except RS cell)
CD 45 RO: Memory cell
CD 45RA/RB: Naive B/T Cell
CD 55(DAF), CD 59(MIRL) : Absent in PNH
CD 68,S-100+ :Histiocyte marker(+ in malignant fibrous histiocytosis)
CD 95/FAS ligand: apoptosis marker (extrinsic pathway)
CD 99/MIC-2 : Ewings sarcoma
CD 103: Hairy cell
CD 117 :GIST,Mastocytosis,AML (117 is present on mast cells also)
CD 123: New antibody in Hairy cell leukemia
CD 133:Glioma
CD 207(Langherin): LCH
CD 235(Glycophorin): AML-M6


Credits: Dr. Rebecca James, Biochemistry
####Facts RNA Editing####
● It is an exception to Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.
i.e., DNA ---- RNA ------ Protein.
● Apo B gene codes for Apo B Protein.
● In Intestine the gene codes apo B48, whereas the same gene to apo B 100 in liver.
● In liver ..... apoB gene .. apo B 100 Protein.
● In Intestine
Apo B gene to Apo B RNA.
● In 48th codon of apo B mRNA there is CAA.
● This C in CAA undergo editing, i.e., mRNA editing
i.e., Deamination of C to U.
● Now at 48th position CAA is changed to UAA.
● UAA is a stop codon.
● So instead of apo B100, here the same gene produces apo B48.
● This is an example of RNA editing.