Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Medical terms Virchow

Medical terms Virchow 

Virchow's angle, the angle between the nasobasilar line and the nasosubnasal line 

Virchow's cell, a macrophage in Hansen's disease 

Virchow's cell theory, omnis cellula e cellula – every living cell comes from another living cell 

Virchow's concept of pathology, comparison of diseases common to humans and animals 

Virchow's disease, leontiasis ossea, now recognized as a symptom rather than a disease 

Virchow's gland, Virchow's node 

Virchow's Law, during craniosynostosis, skull growth is restricted to a plane perpendicular to the affected, prematurely fused suture and is enhanced in a plane parallel to it. 

Virchow's line, a line from the root of the nose to the lambda 

Virchow's metamorphosis, lipomatosis in the heart and salivary glands 

Virchow's method of autopsy, a method of autopsy where each organ is taken out one by one 

Virchow's node, the presence of metastatic cancer in a lymph node in the supraclavicular fossa (root of the neck left of the midline), also known as Troisier's sign 

Virchow's psammoma, psammoma bodies in meningiomas 

Virchow–Robin spaces, enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) (often only potential) that surround blood vessels for a short distance as they enter the brain 

Virchow–Seckel syndrome, a very rare disease also known as "bird-headed dwarfism" 

Virchow's triad, the classic factors which precipitate venous thrombus formation: endothelial dysfunction or injury, hemodynamic changes and hypercoaguability

Monday, 19 December 2016

Urease positive organisms

Urease positive organisms
Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)
Ureaplasma (renal calculi)
Cryptoccocus (the fungus)
Helicobacter pylori

Thursday, 15 December 2016


RansonRanson’s Criteria on Admission : age greater than 55 years
a white blood cell count of > 16,000/ µL
blood glucose > 11 mmol/L (>200 mg/dL)
serum LDH > 350 IU/L
serum AST >250 IU/L

Ranson’s Criteria after 48 hours of admission :
fall in hematocrit by more than 10 percent
fluid sequestration of > 6 L
hypocalcemia (serum calcium < 2.0 mmol/L (<8.0 mg/dL))
hypoxemia (PO2 < 60 mmHg)
increase in BUN to >1.98 mmol/L (>5
mg/dL) after IV fluid hydration
base deficit of >4 mmol/L
The prognostic implications of Ranson’s criteria are as follows :
Score 0 to 2 : 2% mortality
Score 3 to 4 : 15% mortality
Score 5 to 6 : 40% mortality
Score 7 to 8 : 100% mortality

“Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation” (APACHE II) score > 8 points predicts 11% to 18% mortality
Hemorrhagic peritoneal fluid Obesity
Indicators of organ failure
Hypotension (SBP <90 mmHG) or
tachycardia > 130 beat/min
PO2 <60 mmHg
Oliguria (<50 mL/h) or increasing BUN
and creatinine
Serum calcium < 1.90 mmol/L (<8.0
mg/dL) or serum albumin <33 g/L

Balthazar Scoring for the Grading of
Acute Pancreatitis
Grade A – normal CT
Grade B – focal or diffuse enlargement of the pancreas
Grade C – pancreatic gland abnormalities and peripancreatic  inflammation
Grade D – fluid collection in a single location
Grade E – two or more collections and/or gas bubbles in or adjacent to pancreas

Wednesday, 14 December 2016


Grieff stages death

Hypercacemia causing tumors-ROSA
O Ovarian Ca
S Squamous cell lung Ca
A Adult T cell leukemias/lymphomas

Acanthosis Nigricans characteristically
seen in GLU
G Gastric Ca
Lung Ca
Uterine Ca

Acrodermatitis enteroathica -DAD
D Dermatitis
A Alopecia
D diarrhea

Sister mary joseph nodules r seen in
S Stomach cancer
C-Colln Ca (large)
O-Ovarian Ca
P-Pancreatic Ca

Drugs metabolized by P-Glycolization
C Cyclosporine
O Oseltamavir
L Loperamide
D Digoxin

KAN(ear) are ototoxic
K Kanamycin
A Amikacin
N Neomycin

Clavipectoral fascia piercing
structures ACL
A Acromio thoracic artery
C Cephalic vein
L Lateral pectoral nerve

C causes neutropenia

BAP in Nazer Index( parameters
checked in Nazer index for Wilsons
B Bilirubin
A AST(not albumin*)

Saturday, 10 December 2016

Disorders with Café-au-lait Spots

Disorders with Café-au-lait Spots
• Neurofibromatosis
• McCune-Albright syndrome
• Russell-Silver syndrome
• Ataxia telangiectasia
• Fanconi anemia
• Tuberous sclerosis
• Bloom syndrome
• Basal cell nevus syndrome
• Gaucher disease
• Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
• Hunter syndrome
• Maffucci syndrome
• Multiple mucosal neuroma syndrome
• Watson syndrome.

Monday, 5 December 2016

Radiology- CVS

Radiology- CVS
1) egg on side appearance-- uncorrected TGA.
2) boot shaped heart--TOF.
3) BOX shaped-- ebstein anomaly
4)flask shaped-- pericardial effusion.
5) egg in cup appearance--constrictive pericarditis
6)snowman/figure of 8 / cottage loaf sign-- TAPVC.
7)Docks/figure of 3/E- sign= coarctation of aorta. jug handle appearnce = primary pulm HTN.
10) Hilar dance = ASD.
11) goose neck sign= endocardial cushion defect.
12)schimitar sign= partial anamolous pulmonary vein return.
13)convex left heart border= L-TGA.
14)straight left upper cardiac border= ebstein anomaly.
15) concave main pulmonary segment & right aortic arch= persistent truncus arterious
16) calcifiction of heart= carcinoid syndrome.
17)cardiothoracic ratio should be <0.5
18)lamda sign= small ascending aorta in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
19)severe stenosis - mitral valve diameter < 1
20) uhl disease= parchment right ventricle
21) IOC for aortic dissection-- MRI
22) IOC for pericardial effusion= M- mode ECHO.
23)IOC for valvular disease = 2 D -ECHO.
26)small heart
*normal variant
*addisons disease
*constrictive pericarditis.
*right= superior venacava,right atrium,inf venacava
*left=aortic knuckle,pulm artery,left atrial appendage,RV,LV
28)mitral stenosis
*straightening of the left border of the cardiac silhouette
*double atrial shadow.
29) non obstructive TAPVC
*cardiomegaly with plethoric.
*snow man or figure of 8 configuration.
30)obstructive TAPVC
*normal sized heart
*ground glass appearance of lung
due to severe pulmonary HTN.
31)m.c calcification of aorta= syphilitic aortitis.
32)ascending aorta commonest site of calcification.
*enlarged cardiac silhouette.
*ground glass appearance
*kerley b lines
*prominence of upper lobe blood vessel.
*pleural effusion, usually bilateral.
34)even quantities as small as 20-50 ml of pericardial fluid can be diagnosed by echocardiography
35) spring water cyst also k/a pleuro- pericardial cyst or pericardial coelomic cyst.
*minimal cardiomegaly
*minimal increase in pulmonary vasculature
*gross cardiomegaly
*dilatation of both ventricles, left atrium,pulm artery.
*increased pulmonary vascular marking,pulmonary edema &pleural effusion
38)gross cardiac enlargement
*multiple valvular disease.
*pericardial effusion
*ebstein anomaly

Friday, 2 December 2016

Musculoskeletal Radiology Signs

Musculoskeletal Radiology Signs
Absent in posterior dislocation of the
shoulder-Half Moon Sign
ACL Tear-Anterior Drawer Sign
ACL Tear-Bone Bruise Sign
ACL Tear-Deep lateral femoral notch sign
ACL Tear - Segund fractureLateral Capsular Sign
Acromegaly-Heel Pad Sign
Aneurysmal bone cyst-Blister of Bone
Aneurysmal bone cyst-Fluid Fluid Level
Ankle effusion-Teardrop Sign (ankle)
Ankylosing Spondylitis-Bamboo Spine
Ankylosing Spondylitis-Dagger Sign
Ankylosing Spondylitis-Trolley-track sign
Avascular Necrosis-Bite Sign
Avascular Necrosis-Crescent Sign
Avascular Necrosis-Intravertebral Vacuum Cleft
Blowout fracture-Tear Drop Sign (Orbits)
Bucket-handle tear of the menisci- Absent Bow Tie Sign
Bucket-handle tear of the menisci- Double PCL Sign
Bucket-handle tear of the menisci- Fragment-in-Notch Sign
Calcaneonavicular coalition-Anteater Nose
Chronic renal failure-Rugger Jersey Sign
Degenerative disk disease-Vacuum Phenomenon
Discoid Meniscus-Bow Tie Sign
Elbow effusion-Elbow Fat Pad Sign
Elbow effusion-Sail Sign
Enthesopathy-Tooth Sign
Eosinophilic granuloma-Button Sequestrum
Hemolytic anemia-Hair on End
Inferior subluxation of the shoulder- Drooping Shoulder Sign
Intraosseous lipoma-Cockade Image
Lipohemarthrosis-FBI Sign
Loosening prosthesis-Pedestal Sign
Mets, Paget, Lymphoma-Ivory - Vertebra Sign
Normal - No joint effusion-Pneumoarthrogram Sign
Normal spine-Cupid's Bow Contour
Osteopenia-Fish Vertebra
Osteopetrosis-Bone in Bone Sign
Paget's Disease-Blade of Grass Sign
Paget's Disease-Brim Sign
Paget's Disease-Cotton Wool Sign
Post traumatic bone cyst-Tumbling Bullet Sign
Posterior shoulder dislocation-Rim Sign
Posterior shoulder dislocation-Trough Line
Psoriasis-Ivory Phalanx Sign
Psoriasis-Sausage Digit
Rheumatoid arthritis-Boutonniere Deformity
Rheumatoid arthritis-Swan Neck Deformity
Rotary subluxation-Cortical Ring Sign
s/p anterior shoulder dislocation-Hill- Sachs Sign
Scapholunate dissociation-Terry- Thomas Sign
Short 4th Metacarpal\Metacarpal Sign
Sickle cell anemia-H Vertebra
Sickle cell, Gaucher's DiseaseStep-Off Vertebral Body Sign
Spondylolisthesis-Inverted Napoleon Hat Sign
Spondylolysis-Incomplete ring sign
Spondylolysis-Scotty Dog Sign
Subtalar coalition-C Sign
Unicameral bone cyst-Fallen Fragment
Volar Perilunar dislocation-Crowded Carpal Sign
Wrist Fracture-Pronator Sign

Thursday, 1 December 2016


• Spider leg appearance----polycystic kidney
• Cobra head appearance---ureterocele
• Flower vase appearance of ureters---horse shoe kidney
• Sandy patches---schistosomiasis of bladder
• Soap bubble appearance---hydronephrosis
• Apple core lesion on barium ---ca colon
• Claw appearance on barium enema —intussusception
• Saw tooth appearance----diverticula of colon
• Birds beek appearance of esophagus on ba meal---achalasia
• Cork screw appearance of esophagus on barium meal---diffuse esophageal spasm
• String sign of cantor----crohn's dis
• Thumb printing sign---ischemic colitis
• EGG SHELL CALCIFICATION---- silicosis , sarcoidosis , scleroderma , histoplasmosis , amyloidosis , lymphoma following radiotherapy


1. Paracetamol-poisoning :- acetyl cysteine
2. acute bronchial- asthma :- salbutamol
3. acute gout :- NSAIDS
4. acute hyperkalemia:- calcium gluconate
5. severe DIGITALIS toxicity :-DIGIBIND
6. acute migraine :- sumatriptan
7. cheese reaction :- phentolamine
8. atropine poisoning :- physostigmine
9. cyanide poisoning :- amyl nitrite
10. benzodiazepine poisoning:- flumazenil
11. cholera :- tetracycline
12. KALA-AZAR :- lipozomal amphotericin- B
13. iron poisoning :- desferrioxamine
14. MRSA :- vancomycin
16. warfarin overdose :- vitamin-K
17. OCD :- fluoxetine
18. alcohol poisoning :- fomepizole
19. epilepsy in pregnency :- phenobarbitone
20. anaphylactic shock :- Adrenaline