Saturday, 12 December 2015

Prothrombin

Prothrombin.
☆Intrinsic and Extrinsic pathways of coagulation converge at factor 10.
☆Threonine does not contain Sulfa group.
☆Autosomal dominant is hereditary Spherocytosis & Poly cystic kidney disease.
☆Lens opacity causing drugs >Chlorpromazine, Amidarone, Tamoxifen, Gold & Iron toxicity.
☆Drugs causing corneal opacity > Amiodarone, Chloroquine, Mepacrine & Copper.
☆ Ribosome have purple color on Eosin & Methylene blue staining
☆High energy content > Starch.
☆High energy compound > ATP
☆Antidote of warfarin is vitamin K but if action is more quickly required then FFP.
☆Olfactory cells are the only neurons in the body that regenerates.
☆Projectile vomiting greenish in color means bilious vomiting so it is due to duodenal atresia but if projectile vomiting non bilious then it is hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
☆ Pulmonary trunk relation with the bronchus at the hilum of the lung-mnemonic is RALSR- Right Anterior & Left Superior.
☆Rhino sinusitis is caused by Strep Pneumonia, H. Influenza, M Catarrahalis.
☆ Homan’s sign is present in DVT in which if you dorsiflex the foot there will be pain in calf muscles.
☆ Classic triad of Pulmonary Embolism: -
☆☆Neurological manifestations.
-Petechial rash.
-Hypoxemia.
☆Nitrogen bubbled precipitator in ascending divers and can be treated with hyperbaric oxygen.
☆CT pulmonary angiography is the best test to detect Pulmonary Embolism.
☆The most common infectious agent transmitted by blood transfusion is cytomegalovirus (CMV), which is present in donor lymphocytes.
☆Before blood is transfused into newborns or patients with T-cell deficiencies, it must be irradiated to kill donor lymphocytes. This prevents the patient from developing a graft-versus-host reaction or a CMV infection.
☆Yersinia enterocolitica, a pathogen that thrives on iron, is the most common contaminant of stored blood.
☆ Iron is stored in bone macrophages.
☆ Structures passing thru superior orbital fissure....
NOT-FAL
¤NASOCILLIARY¤OPTHALIMIC VEIN¤TROCHLEAR¤FRONTAL
☆☆Suture Removal:
¤Head 5-7days
¤Face 3-5days
¤Eyelid & eyebrow 3-5days
¤Trunk 5-7days
¤Extremities 7-10days
¤Surface of joint 10-14days
¤Hand ==7days
☆☆Absorption
☆iron nd divalents absorb in duodenum.
☆Folic acid, maximum water, max electrolytes, long chain fatty acids in jejunum.
☆Bile nd B12 absorb in ileum.
☆water nd electrolytes absorb in colon but less than jejunum. Short chain fatty acids absorb in colon.
¤¤Buffers
☆Major intracellular buffer is protein.
☆Major extracellular buffer is bicarb.
☆If only major buffer asked then Bicarb.
☆Major renal buffer is still bicarbonate if depleted theb
¤Phosphate ==Qualitative
¤Ammonia == Quantitative
☆Buffer in blood is H2co3 > Hb
¤¤Uterus
☆Uterosacral felt on PR
☆Main support is cardinal(also named transverse cervical ligament )
☆Round ligament of uterus keeps it anteverted anteflexed
☆broad ligament has very lessor role in support
☆Best way to "measure" gfr is inulin clearance.
☆best way to "estimate" gfr is creatinine clearance.
☆best way to "clincally" measure gfr is creatinine clearance.
☆best way to measure renal plasma / blood flow is PAH .
☆best test for renal falilure is creatinine clearance.
☆☆☆☆ blood transfusion
↪multiple===hemochromatosis
↪massive===hyperkalemia
↪repeated ===hypocalcemia.

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