Tuesday, 16 June 2015

Diabetes drugs

Sulfonylureas (glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride)
- Increase insulin secretion
- Adverse effects: hypoglycemia, weight gain

Glucosidase Inhibitors (acarbose and miglitol)
- Reduce absorption of carbohydrates in the upper small intestine
- Can lower HbA1c levels by 0.5% to 1.0%
- Adverse effects: GI intolerance and flatulence

Thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone)
- Increase insulin sensitivity in muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver
- Can lower HbA1c levels by 0.5% to 1.3%

Biguanide (metformin)
- Decrease hepatic glucocose production and enhance insulin mediated glucose uptake in muscle and adiopose cells
- Adverse effects: transient abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea
- Risk of lactic acidosis if receiving IV contrast dye
- In adults, demonstrated normalizing blood glucose levels, decrease cholesterol levels, and reduce hypertension

No comments:

Post a comment