Thursday, 9 April 2015

Retinal layers

RETINAL LAYERS

RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM
PHOTORECEPTORS(RODS $CONES)
EXTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE
OUTER NUCLEAR LAYER
OUTER PLEXIFORM LAYER
INNER NUCLEAR LAYER
INNER PLEXIFORM LAYER
GANGLION CELL LAYER
RETINAL NERVE FIBER LAYER
INTERNAL LIMITING LAYER

RETINAL.LAYERS INVOLVED IN EYE DISEASES

🐾TYPICAL RETINOSCHISIS-split at outer plexiform layer

🐾RETICULAR RETINOSCHISIS-split at level of nerve fibre layer

🐾DIABETIS RETINOPATHY-(mainly affects capillaries which are DEEPLY located) b/w outer plexiform and inner nuclear layer
👉MICROANEURYSM-b/w outer plexiform and inner nuclear layer(compact middle layers of retina)
👉HARD EXUDATES/TRUE/LEKAGE OF LIPOPROTENOUS MATERIAL IN TO RETINA- b/w outer plexiform and inner nuclear layer
👉DOT $ BLOT HEMORRHAGES-
  ➰From microaneurysms-b/w outer plexiform and inner nuclear layer(compact middle layers of retina)VERTICAL BLEED
➰superficial flame shaped hemorrhages-located in nerve fiber layer
➰SOFT EXUDATES-due to retinal ischemia of arterioles in nerve fiber layer

🐾HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY(mainly affects arterioles which are SUPERFICIAL)
➰SOFT EXUDATES/COTTON WOOL SPOTS/NOT TRUE-due to edema of Nerve fiber layer
➰FLAME SHAPED HAEMORRHAGES-bleed in nerve fiber layer which is HORIZONTALY arranged

{📌Although soft exudates and flame hemorhages more common in HT retinopathy these findings also seen in DM retinopathy📌}

🐾CHERRY RED SPOTS-in NFL and ganglion cell layer

🐾 MOST RADIOSENSITIVE layer of retina-rods and cones

🐾MOST RADIORESISTANT layer of retina-ganglion layer

🐾ARMD-RPE dysfunction

🐾CYSTOID MACULAR OEDEMA-accumulation fluid in outer plexiform layer due to defect in inner blood retinal barrier

🐾ANGIOID STREAKS-crack b like dehisence of brush membrane of choroid with secondary changes in RPE

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