Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Revision points

1. Sitting Duck shaped Heart is seen in Persistant Truncus Arteriosus.
2. Sherman paradox is seen in Fragile X syndrome. (It is Anticipation phenomenon in Fragile X syn)
3. Trethowans sign is positive in slipped femoral epiphysis.
Normally : If an anteroposterior view of the hip joint is taken then a line
drawn along the superior surface of the neck should pass through the
femoral head. ( This line is Klein's Line )
If the line remains superior to the femoral head then this is termed Trethowans sign.
4. Amrinone and Milrinone - Side effect - Thrombocytopenia.
5. In PSVT (Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia), QRS is normal.
6. DOC for typical absence seizures: Ethosuximide
7. DOC for atypical absence seizures: Valproate
8. Hyperventilation provokes absence seizures.
9. Ring enhancing lesion on CECT Brain - think about NCC and Tuberculomas.
10. JME (juvenile myoclonic epilepsy) never shows complete remission.
11. Physiologically both hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in lactating breast.
12. Balthazar score / CT severity index is used for Grading Acute Pancreatitis.
13. Physiological umbilical hernia can be seen in 1st trimester ( < 12wks ) and does not persist in 2nd trimester.
14. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is seen in both Rotor syndrome and Dubin–Johnson syndrome but DJS has Black pigmentation of liver.
15. Most radiosensitive layer of retina - Rods and cones.
16. Most radioresistant layer of retina - Ganglion cell layer.
17. Ocular dendritic cells have HLA 2.
18. Transport of ascorbic acid to lens is done by myoinositol.
19. In PCOD : E1 increases (because of peripheral conversion of androgens) but E2 is normal.
20. Severe pancreatitis is said to be present if there is necrosis within the pancreas. Hence it is also known as necrotizing pancreatitis.
21. Coast of california sign is seen in neurofibromatosis.
22. Hippocampus and amygdala are very sensitive to hypoxia. Therefore if exposed to hypoxia, they die after 30 mins.
23. Among causes of neonatal seizures, Late onset hypocalcemia has best prognosis.
24. Sweaty feet odor : Glutaric acidemia type II , Isovaleric acidemia. (Isovaleric acidemia also Cheesy odor)
25. MC cause of pancreatic calcifications - Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.
26. MC complication after lens extraction in PHPV is vitreous hemorrhage.
27. Adenocarcinomas do not calcify.
28. Forgotten muscle of rotator cuff - Subscapularis.
29. Rett syndrome is characterized by Microcephaly.
30. Inferior border of orbit is formed by contribution from maxilla , palatine and zygomatic bones.
31. Odor of urine for hypermethioninemia - boiled cabbage. Also Cabbage odor - in Tyrosinaemia
32. Lead toxicity - Purely motor neuropathy.
33. Malnourished child is Sodium overloaded and Potassium depleted - hence use ReSoMal (Rehydration solution for malnourished)
34. GFR of a newborn is 15 - 20ml/min/1.73 m 2
At 3 months - it is 2/3 rd of Adult Adult Values at 2years age.
35. Newborn's renal tubular concentration capacity reaches adult value at 1year of age.
36. Best method of estimating creatinine is Enzyme assay.
37. Oliguria is important sign of Renal failure.
Causes of Non-Oliguric Renal failure -
● In Newborns ,
● Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity.
38. Total number of nephrons reaches adult value at 36 wks Intrauterine gestation. Thus after birth , there is only functional maturity.
39. In a child with CRF , if Acidosis and hyperphosphatemia is present , then these must be corrected first before introducing Growth hormone.
(GH does not act if acidosis and increased Po4 are present)
40. Membranous glomerulonephritis has been associated with Renal vein thrombosis.
41. Lead pipe appearance of colon is seen in Ulcerative colitis.
42. Tomcat urine smell is associated to multiple carboxylase deficiency.
43. Caplan's syndrome is Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) + Pneumoconiosis.
44. Most common organism for UTI is E.Coli
45. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is only treated during pregnancy
46. Best urine sample for 8 month old girl is by SupraPubic catheterization (even a single colony is UTI with this sample)
47. IOC for VesicoUretric reflux is MCU (Micturating cystourethrography) = VCUG (Voiding cystourethrography )
48. Cranberry juice prevents UTI (because of its ant-adhesion property)
49. IOC for Posterior urethral valve -> MCU = VCUG
50. Pulmonary fibrosis in longstanding cases of Ankylosing spondylitis usually involves upper lobe.

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