Tuesday, 20 January 2015

Anatomy one liners

Anatomy One Liners
1) Ascending colon 12.5cm long - from the caecum to the inferior surface of
the right lobe of liver - usually retroperitoneal
(2) Transverse colon 50cm long
- from the right colic flexure to the left colic flexure
- suspended by transverse mesocolon attached to the anterior border of pancreas
(3) Descending colon - 25cm long
- from left colic flexure to the sigmoid colon
- it is narrower than ascending colon
- usually it is retroperitoneal
(4) Sigmoid colon 37.5cm long
- from pelvic brim to the third piece of sacrum, where it becomes rectum - suspended by sigmoid mesocolon
Mesentery :-♦The mesentery of the small intestine (or) mesentery proper is a broad, fan-shaped fold of peritoneum which suspends the coils of jejunum and ileum from the posterior abdominal wall
Root of mesentery - 15cm long
- directed obliquely downwards and to the right
- It extends from the duodenojejunal flexure on the left side of vertebra L2 to the upper part of the right sacroiliac joint
- It crosses the following :
(1) Third part of duodenum where the superior mesenteric vessels enter into it
(2) The abdominal aorta
(3) The inferior vena cava
(4) The right ureter
(5) The right psoas major
The free or intestinal border is 6meter long, thrown into pleats.
Development of diaphragm by
1. Septum transverum
2.pleuro peritoneal membrane
3.somites (3-5th)
4.ventral pleural sac
5.mesentry of oesophagus

Tonsil develop embryologically from 2nd pharyngeal pouch
Parathyroid is develop from 3rd & 4th brachial pouches
Foot plate of stapes is develop from otic capsule
Umbilical vesicle attain full development in 4th week of foetus
Urachal fistula result from persistant allantois
Tensor tympani and tensor palatine supplied by trigeminal.Levator palatine supplied by suoerior laryngeal nerve.
Derivatives of pharyngeal pouch
1st- tubotympanic recess
3rd-inf parathyroid,thymus
4th-sup parathyroid ,thyroid
5th-ultimobrachial body

Mesodermal derivatives of brachial arch
1st-malleus,incus,ant ligament of malleus,sphenomandibular ligament
2nd-stape,styloid process,stylohyoid ligament,lesser cornu of hyoid,sup part of hyoid
3rd-greater cornu of hyoid,lower part of body of hyoid
4n6th-laryngeal cartilage
1st pharyngeal arch cartilage-meckel cartilage
2nd pharyngeal arch cartilage-reichert cartilage

TYMPANIC membrane dev frm all the three germ layers
Pinna dev frm 1st n 2nd pharyngeal arches
Foot plate and annular ligament frm otic capsule
Left umbilical vein-ligamentum teres
Ductus afteriosus-ligamentum arteriosum
Ductus venosus-ligamentum venosum
Septum primum n secondum-fossa ovalis n annulus ovalis respctvl
Distal umbilical art-median umb ligm
Prxm-sup vesical art
Foregut forms -Oesophagus
- The stomach
- Upper part of duodenum upto the opening of
common bile duct
Midgut forms - Rest of the duodenum
- Jejunum
- The ileum
- The appendix
- The caecum
- The ascending colon
- The right two - thirds of transverse colon
Hindgut forms -Left one third of transverse colon
- The descending colon
- The sigmoid colon
- Proximal upper part of the rectum
Nerve supply of anal canal
(1) Above the pectinate line
- Sympathetic - Inferior hypogastric plexus - L1 & L2
- Parasympathetic- pelvic splanchnic S2,S3,S4
- Pain is carried by both of them
(2) Below the pectinate line
- somatic
- Inferior rectal S2,S3,S4 - nerves
(3) Sphincters - Internal sphincter - contraction - sympathetic
nerve / relaxation - parasympathetic. N
External sphincter - inferior rectal nerve & by
perineal branch of 4th sacral. N
♦Genital tubercle forms - clitoris
- urethral folds forms - labia minora
- genital swelling form - labia majora
- urogenital membrane gets ruptured to form the vestibule
Palatal muscles:
All muscles of soft palate supplied by vagus nerve thru pharyngeal plexus except tensor veli palati supplied by mandibular nerve
pharyngeal muscles:
All muscles of pharynx are supplied by vagus nerve except stylo pharyngeus supplied by Glossopharyngeal nerve

All muscles of larynx supplied by recurrent laryngeal nerve except cricothyroid supplied by external laryngeal nerve (superior LN)
Most frequently fractured bone of body: Clavicle
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone: Lunate
Most frequently fractured carpal bone:Scaphoid
Osseous structure palpated deep to "anatomical snuff box": Scaphoid
Fracture of distal radius that produces "dinner fork" appearance: Colles' fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus: Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus: Radial
Nerve injured that results in wrist drop: Radial
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle: Ulnar
Muscle that is the chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint: Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve: Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm: Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff: Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm: Trapezius and serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint: Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand: Biceps brachii
Primary (major) flexor of the forearm: Brachialis
Orientation of structures located in the cubital fossa-Lateral to Medial: Tendon biceps brachii, brachial a., median n.
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula: Long thoracic nerve
Spinal levels of axillary nerve: C5 and C6
Spinal levels of innervation to muscles of the hand: C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb: C6
Nerve to thenar compartment: Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to nail bed of middle finger: Median nerve
Innervation to nail bed of ring finger: Ulnar and median
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus (C5-C6): Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus (C8-T1): Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome: Median
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome: Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total "claw" hand: Lumbricals
Dermatome around nipple: T4
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula: TV7
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium: Thymus
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle: Disc between TV4-5
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly: 2nd
Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung: 4th
Inferior extent of lung at mid-clavicular line: 6th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-clavicular line: 8th rib
Inferior extent of lung at mid-axillary line: 8th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-axillary line: 10th rib
Inferior extent of lung posteriorly : 10th rib
Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly: 12th rib
Innervation of costal pleura: Intercostal nerve
Innervation of mediastinal pleura: Phrenic nerve
Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of aorta: TV4-5
Level where arch of aorta is continuous with descending aorta: TV4-5
Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs: Bronchodilation, Vasoconstriction
Effect of parasympathetic nerves on lungs: Bronchoconstriction, Vasodilation
Rationale for aspirated small objects to go to right primary bronchus: Wider diameter, shorter and more vertical
Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping: Superior to 12th rib, posteriorly
Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk: conus arteriosum or infundibulum
Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve: Left 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of aortic valve: Right 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve: Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of mitral valve: Left 5th interspace, mid-clavicular line
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection: Right ventricle
Chamber that forms apex of heart: Left ventricle
Major chamber that forms base of heart: Left atrium
Heart chamber that contains moderator band: Right ventricle
Ridge located between sinus venarum and right ventricle: Cristae
terminalis at the root of the SVC
Artery that determines coronary dominance: Posterior interventricular
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries: Right coronary

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