Thursday, 29 January 2015

‎ANATOMY‬ GOLDEN POINTS

‪#‎ANATOMY‬ GOLDEN POINTS
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1. In a female child at birth oocyte is seen arrested in prophase (diplotene) of meiosis-1.
2. Uteroplacental circulation is established at day 12 (week 2)
3. Feto - placental circulation is established at day 22 (week 4).
4. Placenta has 2 components: fetal & maternal. Fetal component is contributed by trophoblast cells of blastocyst & maternal component is by the decidua basalis.
5. Gap junctions permit cell-to-cell communication of small molecules via their connexon channels.
6. The oral portion of epiglottis is lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
7. Thyroid follicles are normally lined by cuboidal epithelium, but they become columnar when stimulated and squamous when inactive.
8. Only the male urethra contains transitional epithelium (in the prostatic portion). Stratified squamous epithelium lines most of the female urethra and the distal end of the cavernous urethra in males.
9. Membranous urethra is lined by stratified (or pseudo-stratified) columnar epithelium.
10. The olfactory epithelium (neuroepithelium) possesses non motile cilia, which act as receptors for odor. They are extensions of the bipolar nerve cells that form part of this tall, pseudo-stratified epithelium located in the roof of the nasal cavity.
11. Terminal bronchioles are lined by an epithelium composed of two cell types: secretory (Clara) cells and ciliated cells. Cartilage is not present in bronchioles.
12. Mucous neck cells are located in the neck of gastric glands in all parts of the stomach, whereas chief (zymogenic) cells are present mostly at fundus of gastric glands and mostly at the fundus part of stomach.
13. Hyaline cartilage is avascular, contains type II collagen. It is located at the articulating ends of long bones.
14. Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) is present in the Lamina propria of Mucosa.
15. Hassall corpuscles are concentric accretions of epithelial reticular cells (derived from endoderm) found only in the medulla of the thymus
16. Langerhans cells in the epidermis function as antigen-presenting cells by trapping antigens that penetrate the epidermis and transporting them to regional lymph nodes, where they are presented to T lymphocytes. They originate in the bone marrow and do not arise from epithelium.
17. Coracoid process is an atavistic type of epiphysis.
18. Pneumatic bones have air cells present in them for e.g., Maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and temporal bones.l

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