Friday, 19 December 2014

Points from ent


CAULIFLOWER EAR---is due to Hematoma of Auricle,"

 "ENCEPHALOCELE---Herniation of Brain tissue with its Dural covering into the Nasal cavity, "-

 "EPITYMPANUM---includes--head of Malleolus , Body of Incus," 

"FITZGERALD-HALLPIKE TEST---uses Temp. at 30oC& 44oC, also called as caloric test?,"

 "LE FORT'S FRACTURE---inv's ZYGOMA, MAXILLA, & NASAL BONES,"

 "Oblique & Horizontal Fracture of nasal septum--- is called asJARJAVAL FRACTURE,"- 

"GLOBUS HYSTERICUS---lump in throat not interfering with swallowing,"- "

GROMMET INSERTION---is done in anteroinferior quadrant,"

 GELLE'S TEST---done in Otosclerosis, "Great Auricular Nr. ---supplies Skin at Angle of JAW,"

 "GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NEURECTOMY--- Route of Approach -Tonsillectomy approach,"- Hearing impairment due to noise starts at 4000 Hz.,- 

"HEMANGIOMA---Bleeding Polyp of nose--arises from septum,"

 HYPERACUSIS---normal sound are heard as loud & painful.

 "HYPERNASALITY---caused by Cleft palate, Submucous celft, Bifed Uvula," 

HYPOPHARYNEAL CANCER---predisposing factors -Plummer Vinson's Synd., 

"INVERTED PAPILLOMA---of Rt.side of nasal cavity -TOC.=Total Maxillectomy,"- 

"INNER AUDITORY MEATUS---facial nerve is lateral to superior vestibular nerve," 

"JUVENILE PAPILLOMA---Rx-Surgical excision," 

"KERATOSIS OBURANS---is a Premalignant condition," 

KOBARK TEST---used for Minimal Caloric Stimulation, "

KARTAGENER'S SYND.---Ass.with Sinusitis, Dextrocardia, Bronchiectasis, " 

"LARYGEAL MIRROR---warmed before use by placing glass surface on Flame,"

LARYNGOFISSURE---Opening the larynx in midline," 

"LARYNGECTOMY---after laryngectomy Voice is from Oesophagus,"

 "LARYNGOCELE---Gas filled sac in neck region after VALSALVA MANOEURVE," 

"ANAESTHESIA OF LARYNX---occurs with Diptheria, Lead Poisoning, Multiple sclerosis,"- 

"LYMPH NODE METASTASIS IN NECK --- is seen in SupraGlottic Ca., Ca.of Tonsil, Papillary Ca.of thyroid, NEVER seen in Ca.of Vocal Cords, "

 "MASKING---is applied for inability to hear,"

 "MASTOID TEMPORAL BONE AIR CELL GROUPS---include Petrosae, Retrofacial, Hypotympanic, Sublabyrinthine."

 "MASTOID TIP---appears by 2yrs. of age," 

"INFERIOR MEATUS OF NOSE---NasoLacrimal duct/ Frontonasal duct opens," 

"MONOAURAL DISPLACUSIS---due to Lesions of Cochlea,"

 "MYIASIS OF NOSE---MAGGOTS OF NOSE, Rx-TOC.--CHLOROFORM Water," "

MYRINGITIS BULLOSA---caused by Virus," 

"NASAL DEPRESSED BRIDGE--- caused by Syphylis, Septal Abscess, Injury," 

CROOKED NOSE---due to Deviated Tip & Septum , "

SADDLE SHAPED NOSE---due to Destruction of na sale septum," 

"OESOPHAGUS---cervical oesophagus receives its blood supply from Inf.Thyroid Artery, "

 "BENIGN NEOPLASMS OF OESOPHAGUS---commonest --is Intramural Tumour of oesophagus "

CARCINOMA OF OESOPHAGUS---RAT TAIL APP. on Barium swallowing,"- 

"OLFCTORY AREA---Looks YELLOW in colour," "OSSICULAR RATIO = 1.3:1 ,

" "TUBERCULAR OTITIS MEDIA---Multiple perforations of T.M.,

 "ACUTE NON SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA---Retracted drumhead with a hiar-line or air bubbles on otoscopy," 

"OTOMYCOSIS---most common fugas aspergillus fumigatus," 

CSF OTORRHOEA--- fracture of petrous ridge/ petrous temporal bone,-

"PENDRED SYND.--Thyroid swelling + nerve deafness,"

 PARAPHARYNGEAL ABCESS---swelling in post. Part of middle1/3 of sternomastoid & tonsil is pused medially "

PAROSMIA---PERVERSION OF SMELL," 

"PHARYNGITIS- MEMBRANOUS---causes--streptococcal, ludwig's angina, diptheria, "-

 PHARYNGOMAXILLARY ABSCESS---medial bulge of pharynx , "

PLEOMORPHIC ADENOMA---most common tumour of parotid gland,"--- 

PNEUMATOCELE--seen in fracture of frontal sinus,----

 PROCESSUS COCHLEARIFORMIS--attaches to handle of mallues, "

RESP.ALLERGY--house dust,"--- "

RANADIER'S OPERATION---done in Petrositis,"

 CHRONIC RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS--due to caries spine,- 

"SICCA RHINITIS--anterior nares inv.,", 

"RHINOLITH--- deposition of calcium around the F.B. in nose,"- 

RHINOPHYMA---hypertrophy of sebaceous gland,---

 "SINGERS NODULE---Voice abuse," 

"SCALA MEDIA ---shows endolymph,"-"

SCHIRMER'S TEST---for lacrimal secr. To test facial nerve,"-- "

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS--senses Angular movements,"---- 

"SCHWARTZ SIGN ---seen in otosclerosis,"- 

"SCHWARTZE OPERATION---done in CSOM,"- 

"SPEECH DISCRIMINATION SCORE---lowest in retrocochlear SND,"---- 

"ALPORT'S SYND.---SNHL+Hereditary nephritis,"----

 "TEMPORAL BONE---petrous part-inner ear,"--- 

"TONE DECAY TEST---done to fineout retrocochlear lesions,"--

 "TOBEY AYER TEST---Lateral sinus thrombosis,"- 

"TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE---double tube, made of Titanium silver alloy, cuffed tube is used for IPPV,

" "TROTTER'S TRIAD---seen in nasopharyngeal ca.,"- "

UMBO---most reliable landmark on otoscopy,"--- 

"VERTIGO---peripheral/ labyrinthine V. fes--unidirectional nystagmus, marked vertigo, ass.central abn.absent,"----

 "VESTIBULE---IS present in nose, larynx, pharynx,"---- 

"VESTIBULAR SCHWANOMMA---IOC--GADOLINIUM ENHANCED MRI,"---

 VIDIAN NERVE---/ NERVE OF PTERYGOID CANAL---, 

"VOCAL NODULES---present at junction of anterior 1/3 & post. 2/3, "- "

WOODRUFF'S AREA---post. End of inferior turbinate, "--

 "WALDERYER'S RING ---inner w.group of L.N.=tonsils, lingual tonsils, adenoids,"--

 "WARTHIN'S TUMOUR---Rx superior paratidectomy,"--- 

ZENKER'S DIVERTICULUM --- it's asymp. 

"AT BIRTH---following structures are of adult size--tympanic cavity, malleus, tympanic ring , except -mastoid antrum," 

"The ADDUCTION OF V.C. cannot occur while talking , but can occur with good cough --is a condition ass. With functional aphonia,"

 "SUPRAGLOTTIS--- include -aryepiglottic folds, false cords, laryngeal surface of the epiglottis,"

 "TRANSBRONCIAL BIOPSY---is thru. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy,"-

 "NORMAL RANGE OF frequency of human haering = 20-20,000 hz,"
 
"AUDIBLE SOUND FOR NORMAL HUMANHEARING = 40-45 db," 

"PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO NOISE LEVELS > 85 db can impair hearing permanently,"

 "RUPTURE OF T.M. /EAR DRUM occur at noise level > 160 db,

" "40 db COMPARED TO 20 DB is 100 TIMES,

 "RHINITIS SYNDROME---in mast cell mediator release category are categorised by sneezing , marked postnasal discharge, lacrimation,"
 
"WATER'S VIEW ( OCCIPITOMENTAL )--- provides good visualization of maxillary sinus, orbitofrontal sinus, frontal sinus," 

"CHILD WITH COMPRESSIBLE SWELLING ROOT OF NOSE---MENINGOMYELOCELE," 

"STRUCTURES PASSING between the upper border of the superior constrictor muscle & base of the skull are levator palati muscle & the cartilagineous eustachain tube," 

QUALITY OF VOICE--- not changed in total adductor palsy

 "FAMILIAL PREDISPOSITION of malignancies--- are seen in -breast, leukaemia, thyroid

 "GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE---supplies sensation to the middle ear mucous memb.,& tongue (post1/3)"

 "MICROPHONIC POTENTIALS ORIGINATING IN COCHLEA are resistant to Ischaemia,"
 
"IVORY OSTEOMA--- sen in fronto-ethmoidal region," 
"
PLICA SEMILUNARIS---is situated in Tonsillar area,"
 "
SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND SURGERY---may result in damage of 7,11,12 Cr.N.,"
 "
MICROLARYNGOSCOPY---size of lens used is 400mm.," 
"
VOCAL FREMITUS ---decreased in Emphysema , thick pleura, Pleural effusion,"
 
"common site of F.B. in lower respiratory tract is --Rt.Main Bronchus,"
 
"IMPAIRMENT OF hearing due to noise starts at ---4000 hz.,/ 4khz. 

"U-SHAPED AUDIOGRAM---CONGENITAL DEAFNESS,"

 FLAT AUDIOGRAM---SEROUS OTITIS MEDIA,

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