Wednesday, 24 December 2014

Anatomy one liners

Innervations
Palatal muscles:
All muscles of soft palate supplied by vagus nerve thru pharyngeal plexus except tensor veli palati supplied by mandibular nerve
pharyngeal muscles:
All muscles of pharynx are supplied by vagus nerve except stylo pharyngeus supplied by Glossopharyngeal nerve
Larynx:
All muscles of larynx supplied by recurrent laryngeal nerve except cricothyroid supplied by external laryngeal nerve (superior LN)
Most frequently fractured bone of body: Clavicle
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone: Lunate
Most frequently fractured carpal bone:Scaphoid
Osseous structure palpated deep to "anatomical snuff box": Scaphoid
Fracture of distal radius that produces "dinner fork" appearance: Colles' fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus: Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus: Radial
Nerve injured that results in wrist drop: Radial
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle: Ulnar
Muscle that is the chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint: Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve: Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm: Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff: Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm: Trapezius and serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint: Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand: Biceps brachii
Primary (major) flexor of the forearm: Brachialis
Orientation of structures located in the cubital fossa-Lateral to Medial: Tendon biceps brachii, brachial a., median n.
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula: Long thoracic nerve
Spinal levels of axillary nerve: C5 and C6
Spinal levels of innervation to muscles of the hand: C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb: C6
Nerve to thenar compartment: Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to nail bed of middle finger: Median nerve
Innervation to nail bed of ring finger: Ulnar and median
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus (C5-C6): Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus (C8-T1): Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome: Median
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome: Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total "claw" hand: Lumbricals
Dermatome around nipple: T4
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula: TV7
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium: Thymus
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle: Disc between TV4-5
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly: 2nd
Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung: 4th
Inferior extent of lung at mid-clavicular line: 6th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-clavicular line: 8th rib
Inferior extent of lung at mid-axillary line: 8th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-axillary line: 10th rib
Inferior extent of lung posteriorly : 10th rib
Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly: 12th rib
Innervation of costal pleura: Intercostal nerve
Innervation of mediastinal pleura: Phrenic nerve
Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of aorta: TV4-5
Level where arch of aorta is continuous with descending aorta: TV4-5
Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs: Bronchodilation, Vasoconstriction
Effect of parasympathetic nerves on lungs: Bronchoconstriction, Vasodilation
Rationale for aspirated small objects to go to right primary bronchus: Wider diameter, shorter and more vertical
Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping: Superior to 12th rib, posteriorly
Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk: conus arteriosum or infundibulum
Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve: Left 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of aortic valve: Right 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve: Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of mitral valve: Left 5th interspace, mid-clavicular line
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection: Right ventricle
Chamber that forms apex of heart: Left ventricle
Major chamber that forms base of heart: Left atrium
Heart chamber that contains moderator band: Right ventricle
Ridge located between sinus venarum and right ventricle: Cristae
terminalis at the root of the SVC
Artery that determines coronary dominance: Posterior interventricular
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries: Right coronary artery
Location of SA node: Cristae terminalis
Major vessel that drains the musculature of the heart: Coronary sinus
Innervation of fibrous pericardium: Phrenic nerve
Most common cause of systolic ejection murmur: Aortic stenosis
Rib associated with sternal angle: Second rib
Location of ductus arteriosus: Between left pulmonary artery and aorta
Nerve potentially injured with repair of patent ductus arteriosus: Left
recurrent laryngeal Nerve
Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic: Subclavian and internal Jugular
Veins that unite to form superior vena cava: Right and left Brachiocephalic
Termination of azygos vein: Superior vena cava
Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct: Azygos veins, aorta
Spinal levels of greater splanchnic nerve: T5-9
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve: T10-11
Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve: T12
Thoracic structures that can compress the esophagus: Left bronchus, aorta and Diaphragm
Disease often associated with thymoma: Myasthenia gravis
Structure that separates pelvis from perineum: Pelvic diaphragm
Two major components of pelvic diaphragm: Levator ani and coccygeus
Two major components of levator ani: Pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus
Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall: Obturator internus and piriformis
Means by which obturator internus exits pelvis: Lesser sciatic foramen
Means by which piriformis exits pelvis: Greater sciatic foramen
Innervation of detrusor: Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)
Innervation of trigone
: Sympathetics (Pregang. lesser, least, lumbar splanchnic nn.)
Innervation of sphincter urethrae: Pudendal n. (S 2,3,4)
Remnants of umbilical arteries: Medial umbilical ligaments
Provides major vasculature to pelvic organs: Internal iliac
Chief artery to rectal mucosa Superior rectal
Chief artery to rectal muscular wall: Middle rectal
Most common type of pelvic inlet in females: Gynecoid
Two remnants of gubernaculum in females: Ovarian and round ligament
Ligament that contains ovarian vessels: Suspensory ligament of ovary
Cavity into which ova immediately escape the ovary: Peritoneal
Lymphatic drainage for ovary and testes: Lumbar nodes (para-aortic)
Normal position of uterus: Anterverted, anteflexed
Name given to orientation where uterus and vagina intersect at angle of 90 degrees: Anteversion
Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix intersect at angle of 10-15 degrees: Anteflexion
Chief uterine support: Pubococcygeus
Ligament that contains uterine vessels: Lateral cervical
Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy: Ureter
Relation of ureter to uterine artery: Inferior and posterior
Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces: Perineal membrane
Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles: Ischial tuberosities
Structure forming lateral wall of ischioanal fossa: Fascia of obturator Internus
Structure that forms the pudendal canal: Fascia of obturator Internus
Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids: Pectinate line
Lymphatic drainage for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal: Internal iliac, inferior mesenteric nodes
Lymphatic drainage for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal: Superficial inguinal nodes
Lymphatic drainage for glans penis: Deep inguinal nodes
Muscle which compresses the bulb of penis: Bulbospongiosus
Muscle which compresses the crus of penis: Ischiocavernosus
Nerves of erection: Pelvic splanchnic, nervi erigentes (S 2,3,4)
Muscles which meet at the perineal body: Superficial and deep perineal, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, pubococcygeus
Major structure of deep perineal space: Sphincter urethrae
Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column: Kyphosis
Lateral deviation of vertebral column: Scoliosis
Major feature of cervical vertebrae: Transverse foramina
Structure which regionally determines vertebral movement: Facet joints
Vertebra located at level of iliac crest: L4
Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae: Ligamentum flavum
Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column: Anterior longitudinal
Ligament affected by whiplash injury: Anterior longitudinal
Ligament which limits skull rotation: Alar
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area: Pedicle
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area: Pars interarticularis, Lamina
Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae: Posterior
Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens: Transverse ligament of atlas (part of cruciate)
Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc: L4-5
Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc: L5
Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6: C6
Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4: L4
Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation: sixth
Vertebral level of lumbar puncture: L4
Muscles which extend and side-bend the spine: Erector spinae
Muscles which extend, ROTATE, and side-bend the spine: Transversospinae
Innervation of suboccipital muscles: Suboccipital nerve (Dorsal ramus C1)
Roof of suboccipital triangle: Semispinalis capitis
Floor of suboccipital triangle: Posterior arch of atlas; posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
Major vessel within suboccipital triangle: Vertebral artery
Inferior extent of dura-arachnoid sac: SV2
Inferior extent of spinal cord: LV2
Location of internal vertebral plexus: Epidural space
Most frequently fractured bone of body : Clavicle
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone: Lunate
Most frequently fracture carpal bone: Scaphoid
Osseous structure palpated deep to “anatomical snuff box”: Scaphoid
Fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork” appearance: Colle’s fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus: Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus: Radial
Nerve injured that results in wrist drop: Radial
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle: Ulnar
Muscle that is the chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint: Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve: Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm: Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff: Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm: Trapezius and serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint: Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand: Biceps brachii
Primary (major) flexor of the forearm: Brachialis
Orientation of structures located in the cubital fossa-Lateral to Medial: Tendon biceps brachii, brachial a., median n.
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula: Long thoracic nerve
Spinal levels of axillary nerve: C5 and C6
Spinal levels of innervation to muscles of the hand: C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb: C6
Nerve to thenar compartment: Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles: Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to nail bed of middle finger: Median nerve
Innervation to nail bed of ring finger: Ulnar and median
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus (C5-C6): Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus (C8-T1): Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome: Median
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome: Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw” hand: Lumbricals
Boundaries of femoral triangle: Inguinal ligament, sartorius, adductor longus
Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath: Femoral nerve
Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath" Femoral vein
Contents of femoral canal: Deep inguinal lymph nodes
Medial boundary of femoral ring: Lacunar ligament
Structures that course throughout entire length of adductor canal: Femoral artery and vein
Structures that course through only portion of adductor canal: Saphenous nerve, nerve to vastus medialis, descending genicular vessels
Muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa: Popliteus
Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint: Iliopsoas
Muscle that prevents pelvis from tilting when walking: Gluteus medius
Nerve affected when pelvis tilts to unsupported side during gait: Superior gluteal n.
Muscles which extend the thigh and flex the leg: Hamstrings
Muscle that extends leg: Quadriceps femoris
Specific muscle that holds patella in place: Vastus medialis
First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury: Vastus medialis to femoral nerve
Last portion of quadriceps femoris to recover following injury: Vastus medialis
Muscle that unlocks knee joint: Popliteus
Muscle affected with “foot slap”: Tibialis anterior
Major spinal cord level of nerve affected causing foot slap: L4
Chief invertors of foot: Tibialis anterior and posterior
Chief evertors of foot: Fibularis longus and brevis
Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia: Anterior cruciate
Ligament laxity with positive valgus maneuver: Medial collateral
Most commonly injured ankle ligament: Anterior talofibular
Ligament stretched with “flat foot”: Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring)
Joints for movements of inversion and eversion: Subtalar and transverse Tarsal
Major artery to head of femur in adult: Medial femoral circumflex
Nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula: Common fibular
Tendon affected with avulsion fracture of 5th metatarsal: Fibularis brevis
Innervation of adductor magnus: Obturator, tibial portion of Sciatic
Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome: Tibial

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