Tuesday, 25 February 2014

Endocrinology

Endocrine Hormones and Disorders

Hyposecretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone - Diabetes insipidus

    Due to decreased production of anti-diuretic hormone in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus.  Often associated with a head injury.

Symptoms:  Excessive diuresis and thirst (polyuria and polydipsia).

Hyposecretion of Growth hormone - Pituitary dwarfism

    Due to decreased production of growth hormone from the somatotropic cells of the anterior pituitary.  Generally due to a nonmalignant adenoma of the non-somatotropic tissue of the anterior pituitary.

Symptoms:

1.  Pronounced hypoglycemia.

2.  In Lorain dwarfism:
    a.  arrested sexual development
    b.  stunted growth
    c.  normal intelligence

3.  In Frolich's dwarfism:
    a.  arrested sexual development
    b.  stunted growth
    c.  mental retardation

Hypersecretion of growth hormone - Giantism and Acromegaly

    Pituitary giantism is due to overproduction of growth hormone during childhood.  Usually caused by an adenoma of the somatotropic cells.

Symptoms:  Excessive growth, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and high basal metabolic rate (BMR).

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