Monday, 28 July 2014

One liners

1. Heart size is Normal in :TOF and TAPVC ( infracardiac form )
2. Visual reflex formation or Macula mature by5-6 months life
3.Gardasil-- 16 , 18 , 6 , 11
Cervarix -- 16 , 18
4. Renal tubular acidosis -- Normal Anion gap Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis
Point to remember -- its NORMALinSerumbutPOSITIVEanion gap inUrine
5. Ectopic ACTH Syndrome --Hypokalemic Alkalosis
6. Anatomical Closure of Ductus arteriosus --1-3 monthsafter birth. 1-3 months after birth. (ref: Langman's embryology & Guyton)
7. Corneal donor -- till6 hourafter death
8. Nerve fibers -- A and B areMyelinated; A to C - Diameter and Velocitydecrease
9. For Congenital hypothyroidism -- TSH , best done>48 hrs - 6 dayslife
10. Child of HIV positive Mother -- Cant use IgG for1st 18 monthsto diagnose as that comes from
mother. So p24 assay , PCR , Viral  Culture are used.
11.Neomycinis present in Polio Vaccine
12. TORCH infectivity -- All at time of birth BUTRubella has 2 peaksi.e 10 -11 wks and delivery.
13.Unchanged during child birth-- Diameter between Sacral promontary and Pubic Symphisis.
14.RAIU--I 123;
RIA ---- I 125
15. CO poisoning-- PO2 Normal but O2 saturation is less.
16. Fetal distress --S/D ratio--increases in Umblical Artery , decreases in MCA.
17. AllMyopathies are Proximalexcept Myotonic Dystrophy (type 1)
18. AllNeuropathies are Distalexcept GBS and SMA.
19.Glysineis the smallest and simplest Amino Acid.
20.Adder Headon IVP -- Ureterocele
21.Flower vase / shaking handsign -- Horseshoe kidney
22. Ligament ofStruthers.-- remnant of 3rd head of coracobrachialis , runs from supracondylar spur on anteromedial humerus to medial epicondyle, median n and brachial a may run beneath it.
23.Shortest Colon- Ascending
Longest Colon- Transverse
24. Trigeminal Neuralgiararelyinvolves Ophthalmic division
If in a young / if it is Bilateral -- then Multiple Sclerosisis a key consideration
25. After overnight fasting , levels of glucose transporters are reduced inMuscle.
26.Pacini Corpuscles-- detects gross pressure changes and vibration
27.Epiphyseal dysgenesis-- in Hypothyroidism
28. In Hypothyroidism ---Increased CSF protein
29. Most characteristic cutaneous manifestation ofFMF(Familial Medit. fever) -- Erysipelas like erythema.
30. Two halves of Mandible join together by2yrsof Life
31. Syphilitic Aortitis --Proximal AscendingAorta
32. Superficial spreading melanoma --Buckshotappearance (Pagetoid cells)
33. Seborrheic Keratoses --Stuck onlesion
34. Finger prints can be taken in cases of advanced decomposition and drowning
But NOTin case ofcorrosion
35. Generally all bones ossify earlier in females
Skull sutures obliterate earlier in Males.
36.Anterior neuroporecloses by 25th day, andposteriorone closes by 27th day of IUL.
37.Gittre cellsare modified CNS macrophages.
38.Hirano Bodiesin Hyppocampus -- Alzheimer's
39.AcrocentricChromosomes -- 13 , 14 , 15 , 21 , 22 , Y
40.LAPincreased in -- Leukamoid reaction , Polycythemia Vera
decreased in -- CML , PNH
41. Schistiocyte-- MicroAngiopathic Hemolytic anaemia
42.Tear Drop cell-- Myelofibrosis
43.Target cell-- Thallesemia , HbC disease , Liver disease.
44.Good ALL-- Female , 2-10 years , Hyperdiploidy , B-ALL(NOT preB-ALL)
45. Pregnancy tumor of gums =Granuloma pyogenicum
46. RCC = Hypernephroma =Grawitz Tumor
47.Holly leafmesangial deposits -- FSGN
48.Spike & Dome , String of Popcorn-- Membranous GN
49.Wire loop-- Class IV Lupus Nephritis
50. Post Mortem staining iswell developedin 4 hrs and becomesfixedin 6-12 hrs
51.Three important syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches:
*.Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS),
*.Oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome (AOVS) and
*.Auriculo-Condylar syndrome (ACS) or question mark ear syndrome.
52. Achlasia Cardia - uncoordinated,non-progressive contractionwithin the esophageal body
BUT The hallmark symptom of  achalasia isprogressive dysphagia.
53. The mandible isnotpart of the craniumnorpart of the facial skeleton.
54. There are 2 things - Threshold level and a discriminatory level for theappearance of a gestational sac
on USG
The threshold level identifies the earliest one can expect to see a sac (4 weeks, 3 days), and
The discriminatory level  identifies when one should always see the sac (5 weeks, 2 days).
55.Fluoroscopyis a real-time x-ray viewed on a video monitor, provides information about moving organs.
Examples include motion of the diaphragm or chest wallduring respiration and left ventricular
contraction during systole. During fluoroscopy, the patient can be turned obliquely, to eliminate
overlapping of structures.
56. Digitalis toxicity isprecipitatedby HypoKalemia , but itsmanifestationis HyperKalemia.
57. Beta Thallesemiaminor--HbA2increased
Beta Thall interm/major -- HbF  increased
58. Theleft pulmonary artery lies above the left main bronchusbefore passing posteriorly, whereas on
the right side the artery is  anterior to the bronchus resulting in the right hilum being the lower.
59. Least CO2 -- in Anatomical Dead Space --At the END Inspiratory Phase.
60. Central Chemoreceptors arenotsensitive to Hypoxia.
61.Middle genicular arterypierces the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee joint.
62. Among Benzodiazepine -Lorazepamcauses the longest duration of antegrade amnesia.
63. Pressure relief valve isnotrequired forCyclopropane.
( Pressure relief valveis a mechanical device that eliminates system overpressure by allowing the
controlled or emergency escape  of liquid or gas from a pressurized system. The relief valve may or may
not be adjustable.)
64. Each 1ml of O2 liquid -- 840 mlgas.
65. The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is often termed theAlderman's nerve or Arnold's nerve.
66. Failure of thesinus of Histo obliterate that is believed to be the cause of the development of branchial cleft cysts, fistulas, or sinuses.
67.Red Ribbon-- Aids Awareness.
Pink Ribbon-- Breast Cancer Awareness.
68. Father of Orthopaedics --" Sir Nicholas Andre "
69.Blair's procedure-- Arthrodesis of ankle joint.
70.Darrach osteotomy-- done in Made Lung Deformity.
71. Partial or Complete loss of bone seen on X-Ray isPathognomonic of Fracture.
72.Godfrey Hounsfieldwon the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for developing CT, shared with Allan M. McCormack.
73. Theatypical ribs: 1st, 2nd, 11th, and 12th ribs.
74. Cuffed ET tube - Cuff pressure shouldnever exceed 30 cmof H2O (preferably 25cm).
75. PVC - ET tubes useHigh Volume Low Pressurecuffs. (therefore suitable for long duration).
76. FDA approvedRaxibacumabto treat" inhalational anthrax "- First monoclonal antibody approved
using the Animal Efficacy Rule.
77. Major carrier of Nitrogen by  products from most tissues in the body isGlutamine.
78. Keloid is a result of anovergrowthof granulation tissue(collagen type 3)at the site of a healed skin injury which is thenslowly replaced by collagen type 1.
79.Medianumbilical ligamentis the remnant of theurachus, which joined the apex of the fetal bladder to the umbilicus.
80.Medialumbilical ligamentsare formed byoccluded partsof theUmbilical arteries.
81.Hilarcholangiocarcinoma is the most common among Cholangiocarcinomas.
82. Maximum content oftryglycerideis found in- Chylomicrons
83. Maximum content ofExogenous tryglycerideis found in-Chylomicrons
84. Maximum content ofEndogenous tryglycerideis found in- VLDL
85. Maximum content ofCholesterolis found in- LDL
86.N2Ocan be Teratogenic
87.Central pontine myelinolysisseen withcorrectionofhyponatremia.
88. Best test for Malignant Hyperthermia -"Caffeine-halothane contracture test".
89.Neuroaxial block- INR should be < 1.4.
90. Protein intake in ICU :1 - 1.5 g/kg/day.
91. Most common ophthalmic complication during anaesthesia :Corneal abrasion.
92. History of Post dural puncture headache isNOTacontraindicationof Epidural block.
93.Flat Capnogram
*.Accidental Extubation
*.Dissociation of anaesthetic tube
*.Mechanical ventilation failing
94.O2 contentof anaesthetic mixture : 33%
95. Preanaesthetic drug which causeslongest amnesia: Lorazepalm
96. Anaesthetic with Least decrease in Systemic vascular resistance :Halothane
97.Malignant Hyperthermia :
*.Respiratory Acidosis
98.Dextrose fluid is NEVERused for Resuscitation.
99. Opioid given astransdermal: Fentanyl
100. Drug of choice forAsystole and Cardiac arrest: Adrenaline
101. Maple syrup urine disease(MSUD) is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex , leading to a buildup of the branched-chain amino acids(leucine, isoleucine, and valine)
102. TheSMAlies to theleftof the SMV as it crosses over the third portion of the duodenum. ( Clinical Importance : to check malrotation )
103.Meta-analysisis best for Probiotics' Trial.
104. Vertical crest in fundus of internal auditory canal is -Bill's Bar.
105. Sphincter of oddi has 3 sphincters.
106. Sheath surrounding the neurovascular bundle in axilla is derived from -Prevertebral fascia.
107.1st partof duodenum has duodenal cap/bulb.
108. Spleen projects intoGreater sac.
109. Axillary abscess is drained safely throughFloor.
110. The primary direct stimulus for excitation of central chemoreceptors -H+ increase.
111. Breast Milk isContraindicatedin Galactosemia
112. If Mother Sputum +veTB- Still givebreast milkto baby ( with 6months course of 5mg/kg INH )
113. Mother withHIV- Never mix feed i.e giveexclusivetrophic feed or give expressed milk of other women )
114. Mother to Child transmission ofHbsAg - Preventby
*.HBIG within 12 hr of life
*.Vaccine on day 1 of life.
115. Anti HbsAb Protective Titre -> 10 mIU / ml
116. Liver biopsy in Alpha 1 anti-tripsin deficiency :PAS +ve and Diastase resistant granules
117. CMV :Intranuclear Owl eye inclusion bodies.
118.Nystagmus induced by Valsalva maneuver:
*.Chiari Malformation
*.Perilymph fistula
*.Superior Canal dehiscence syndrome
119. GABA is formed fromPyridoxine.
120. If pregnant lady shows Rubella antibody +ve : It means she isimmune to rubelladuring her pregnancy and need not worry for rubella infection.
121. Various types of vasculitis produce aneurysms in many portions of the aorta and its branches, butTakayasu arteritisis the only type of aortitis that producesstenosisin the thoracic aorta.
(ref: Miller SM. Thoracic aortic diseases.)
122.Noonan Syndromehas Phenotype as that of Turner syndrome but Normal Karyotype (XX or XY).
123. Earliest disease for which enzyme supplementation / replacement therapy introduced -Gaucher's disease.
124. 1st disease for which Gene therapy introduced -SCID
125. Thedystrophin geneis the largest gene found in nature.
126. Down's syndrome in a baby of young mother is most commonly due to -Robertsonian translocation, not trisomy.
127.Maternal Lithium- Ebstein Anomaly - Box shaped heart.
128. Most common heart tumor -Atrial Myxomas
129. Umblical cord - 2 arteries 1 vein (Right umblical vein disappears).
130. ThePulmonary vascular resistancefalls fairly rapid to reach Normal adult values by 2-3 wks in normal babies.
In VSD and PDA , it takes 6-10 wks.
131.Cat eye syndrome:
*.Partial trisomy of chromosome 22
*.Vertical oval pupil due to inferior iris coloboma132.Single S2in Tetrology of fallot.
133.Allnewborns have right ventricular hypertrophy and right axis deviation.
134. AA which have apKa of 4- aspartic acid and glutamic acid
135.Topoisomerase I (relaxase)
*.makes ssDNA cuts,
*.requires no ATP,
*.relaxes supercoils, and
*.acts as the swivel in front of the replication fork136.12 ATPsare generated per acetylCoA.
137.Ketogenic AAs- Leucine and Lysine
138.Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)associated enzymes :

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