Wednesday, 22 January 2014


Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column: Kyphosis 
Lateral deviation of vertebral column: Scoliosis

Major feature of cervical vertebrae: Transverse foramina

Structure which regionally determines vertebral movement: Facet joints

Vertebra located at level of iliac crest: L4

Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae: Ligamentum flavum

Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column: Anterior longitudinal

Ligament affected by whiplash injury: Anterior longitudinal

Ligament which limits skull rotation: Alar

Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area: Pedicle

Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area: Pars interarticularis, Lamina

Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae: Posterior

Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens: Transverse ligament of atlas (part of cruciate)

Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc: L4-5

Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc: L5

Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6: C6

Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4: L4

Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation: sixth

Vertebral level of lumbar puncture: L4

Muscles which extend and side-bend the spine: Erector spinae

Muscles which extend, ROTATE, and side-bend the spine: Transversospinae

Innervation of suboccipital muscles: Suboccipital nerve (Dorsal ramus C1)

Roof of suboccipital triangle: Semispinalis capitis

Floor of suboccipital triangle: Posterior arch of atlas; posterior atlanto-occipital membrane

Major vessel within suboccipital triangle: Vertebral artery 

Inferior extent of dura-arachnoid sac: SV2

Inferior extent of spinal cord: LV2

Location of internal vertebral plexus: Epidural space

Most frequently fractured bone of body : Clavicle

Most frequently dislocated carpal bone: Lunate

Most frequently fracture carpal bone: Scaphoid

Osseous structure palpated deep to “anatomical snuff boxâ€: Scaphoid

Fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork†appearance: Colle’s fracture

Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus: Axillary

Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus: Radial

Nerve injured that results in wrist drop: Radial

Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle: Ulnar

Muscle that is the chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint: Deltoid

Muscles innervated by axillary nerve: Deltoid and teres minor

Muscle that initiates abduction of arm: Supraspinatus

Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff: Supraspinatus

Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm: Trapezius and serratus anterior

Tendon that courses through shoulder joint: Long head of biceps

Chief supinator muscle of hand: Biceps brachii

Primary (major) flexor of the forearm: Brachialis

Orientation of structures located in the cubital fossa-Lateral to Medial: Tendon biceps brachii, brachial a., median n.

Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula: Long thoracic nerve

Spinal levels of axillary nerve: C5 and C6

Spinal levels of innervation to muscles of the hand: C8 and T1

Dermatome of thumb: C6

Nerve to thenar compartment: Recurrent branch of Median

Innervation of adductor pollicis: Ulnar (deep br.)

Innervation to all interosseous muscles: Ulnar (deep br.)

Innervation to nail bed of middle finger: Median nerve

Innervation to nail bed of ring finger: Ulnar and median

Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus (C5-C6): Shoulder

Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus (C8-T1): Intrinsic hand muscles 

Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome: Median

Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome: Ulnar

Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw†hand: Lumbricals

Boundaries of femoral triangle: Inguinal ligament, sartorius, adductor longus

Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath: Femoral nerve

Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath” Femoral vein

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