Monday, 23 December 2013

Stains

SPECIAL STAIN REVIEW:---• HEMATOLOGY STAINS:
1) ROMANOWSKY STAIN:
routine stain for peripheral smear
examination
it’s a family of stain consisting of
1) Giemsa ( best and most commonly used)
2) leishman
3) wright
4) jenner
it can stain( apart from normal cells):
a) reticulocytes ( but non specific)
b) howell jolly bodies
c) basophilic stippling
d) cabot rings
BUT NOT FOR ---heinz bodies

2) HEINZ- BODIES
By supravital staining---methyl violet and crystal violet

3) RETICULOCYTES:
Specific stains are SUPRAVITAL STAINS
BEST –brilliant CRESYL BLUE
ALSO used are---NEW METHYLENE BLUE

• 1) HEMATOXYLIN stain:
Blue and basic
Stains NEGATIVELY CHARGED substances e.g.
DNA and RNA
Nucleus stained

2) EOSIN :
Pink and acidic
Stains POSITIVELY CHARGED structures e.g.
mitochondria
Cytoplasm is stained

• 3) Oil red O stain:
fat/lipid (on frozen section)
other stains for lipid /fat are:
a) Sudan black B
b) Sudan IV
c) Annexin V
d) Osmium teroxide

• 4) PAS Stain :
a) Glycogen
b) Fungus and amoeba
c) Basement membrane
d) Lymphoblast (BLOCK LIKE POSITIVITY)
e) Erythroblast (DIFFUSELY POSITIVE)

• 5) CALCIUM STAINS :
a) Von kossa
b) Alizarin red
c) Calcein

• 6) PERL’S PRUSSIAN BLUE :
Iron/hemosiderin

• 7) FUNGUS STAINS:
a) Gomori’s methenamine silver stains ---
(best fungal stain; stains both live and dead fungus)
b) PAS stain----only live fungus staining

• AMYLOID STAINS:
a) Lugol’s iodine—gross specimen
b) Hematoxylin and eosin
c) Methyl violet
d) Crystal violet
e) Thioflavin T
f) Toluidine blue
g) PAS
h) Alcian blue
i) CONGO RED STAIN--- pink/red under
ordinary light
And APPLE –GREEN BIREFRINGERENCE on
POLARISED MICROSCOPY(DIAGNOSTIC)

• 9) ALCIAN BLUE STAIN;
Mucin and mucosubstances
• ACID FAST yh
Mycobacterium

11) FONTANA MASSON:
Melanin and Argentaffin cells

12) MASSON’s TRICHROME STAINS:
Collagen and connective tissue

13) VERHOFF-VON-GIESON (VVG):
Elastic fibres ( other stain---ORCEIN stain)

14) TOLUIDINE BLUE: Mast cells

15) LUXOL FAST BLUE: Myelin

16) BIELSCHOWSKY STAIN:
(uses silver stain)
Neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

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