Monday, 2 December 2013


  • congo red and toludine blue -- amyloid
  • pas --- carbohydrates mucicarmine ,
  • alcian blue ----- acidic mucin
  • combined ab-pas ---- neutral mucin
  • van giesson , masson trichome for extracellular collagen
  • ptah ----muscle and glial filament
  • verhoeffs elastic ----- elastic fibres
  • gordon and sweet ----- reticular fibres
  • OIL RED O , sudan black b , osmium tetroxide ------ fats
  • fite wade ---- leprosy bacilli
  • grocotts silver methanamine----fungi
  • giemsa ---- parasites
  • shikatas orcein --- hep B surface antigen
  • luxol fast blue --- myelin
  • bielschowskys silver ---- axons
  • masson fontanna---- melanin , argentaffin cells
  • alizarin red s --- calcium
  • rubeanic acid --- copper
  • grimelius--- argyrophil cells
  • feulgen reaction ---- dna
  • methyl green pyronin---- dna , rna

Seminal stains
Physical examination-
UV light- bluish white colour

Chemical examination -
Florence test-choline -dark brown crystals
Barberio test-spermine-yellow needle shaped rhombic crystals
acid phosphatase test-quantitative test-inhibition by l- tartaric acid non specific but valuable screening test
Creatinine phosphokinase test- >400U/ml diagnostic-can be detected in old stains till 6 mnths
choline and spermine test-thin layer chromatography technique
Ammonium molybdate test -deep yellow colour due to presence of  phosphorus
MHS -5-seminal vesicle
Mab4 E6 of sperm cells detected by immunological method
Prostate specific antigen replaced acid phosphatase for quantitative analysis
FISH. Most sensitive and specific for detection of male epithelial cells in vagina upto 1 wk

Microscopic examination-Y chr fluorescent to Quinacrine
Electrophoretic -Acid phosphatase isoenzyme test
LDH isoenzyme test

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