Thursday, 5 December 2013


Drug used for ataxic disorder:Idebenone.
niacin is the most effective drug available to lower HDL-C.
The most widely used diet to lower LDL-C is Step 1 diet developed by AHA
Bile acid sequestrants are treatment of choice to reduce TG in children and pregnant woman.
MPTP Toxin causes parkinsonism.
Addictive drugs share the property of increasing dopamine release in nucleus accumbens.
Stiff person syndrome: antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase.
Rassmussen encephlitis:antibody against glutamate receptor 3.
All neurodegenerative diseases are caused due to accumulation of small protein aggregates called oligomers.
Diffusion MRI is the most sensitive investigation for acute ischemic stroke.
Contrast nephropathy:Rise in serum creatinine of atleast 1mg/dl within 48 hours after contrast injection.
Dose of Gadolinium for contrast is
0.2mg/kg body wt.
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(MTLE) is the most common syndrome associated with focal seizures with dyscognitc features.
Essential pathophysiology of MTLE is hippocampal sclerosis.
Most GTCS and some focal seizure are accompanied by increase in serum prolactin level whereas psychogenic seizures does not show this phenomena.
Vagus nerve stimulation can be used as an treatment of refractory surgical causes of seizure which are multifocal.
Lamotrigine use during pregnancy for seizure is associated with development of cleft lip or palate in fetus.
A decrease in cerebral blood flow to 0 causes death of brain tissue in 4-10 mins; values <16-18ml/100g of tissue cause infarction within an hour and values <20ml/100 g of tissue per minute cause ischemia without infarction
Aspirin is the only antiplatelet that has proven effective for acute treatment of ischaemic stroke.
Abciximab should be avoided in acute stroke since it causes excess intracranial hemorrhage.
Nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation is the most common cause of cerebral emolism.
The principal side effect of dipyridamole is headache.
When PCA arises from internal carotid artery it is called fetal posterior cerebral artery.
Locked in syndrome is due to complete pontine and lower midbrain infarction.
Peduncular hallucinosis(visual hallucination of brightly colored scenes and objects) is due to PCA occlusion.
Xray cerebral angiography is the gold standard for identifying and quantifying stenoses of cerebral arteries.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is the most common cause of lobar hemorrage in elderly.
Most common presentation of spinal bleed is sudden onset back pain and some manifestation of myelopathy.
Cerebellar hematomas >3cm diameter require surgical evacuation.
Alzheimer disease begins in transentorhinal region.
Early visual hallucinations,parkinsonism,brittle proneness to delirium or sensitivity to psychoactive medication suggest diagnosis of DLB(Lewy body dementia).
FTD is indicated by axial rigidity,supranuclear gaze palsy and a motor neuron disease.
PSP is associated with unexplained falls,axial rigidity,vertical gaze deficits.
Radioligands used for amyloid imaging for diagnosis of alzheimer disease are Pittsburgh compound and 18F-AV-45.
Skin biopsy showing osmophilic granules are pathognomonic of CADASIL.
Pick bodies are stained by Bielschowsky silver method.
Globose tangles are seen in PSP.
Mammiliary body atrophy is seen in korsakoff syndrome.
Humming bird sign seen in PSP is atrophy of midbrain with relative preservation of pons.
Hot cross bun sign seen in MSA.
The most significant pathological mechanism for Parkinsons disease are protein misfolding and accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

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