Monday, 11 November 2013

OBG Signs

25 IMPORTANT SIGNS IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY:
Bagel sign:
Ultrasonographic sign. Gestational sac in the adnexa with hyperechoic ring
Ball Sign:
Radiological sign of intrauterine fetal death. X-ray shows crumpled up spine of the fetus..
Banana Sign:
Ultrasound sign in open spina bifida. Shows abnormal anterior curvature of cerebellum. Due to the associated Arnold-Chiari malformation.
Chadwick’s Sign:
Bluish hue to the vestibule and anterior vaginal wall. Seen in first trimester of pregnancy. Cause is increased blood flow to the pelvic organs. Also known as jacquemier’s Sign.
Cullen Sign:
Bluish discoloration of skin around umbilicus. Occurs due to intra peritonealhemorrhage. Seen in ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
Double Bubble Sign:.
Useful in prenatal diagnosis of duodenal atresia. Duodenal atresia usuallypresents with polyhydramnios and produces dilatation of stomach and first part of duodenum
Double decidual sac Sign:
Normal Ultrasonographic appearance of intrauterine gestational sac. Seen as twoconcentric echogenic rings separated by a hyperechoic space.
Goodell Sign:
Marked softening of the cervix in contrast to non pregnant state. Also due toincreased blood flow.
Hegar Sign:
An indication of Pregnancy. Softening of the lower parts of the uterus enablesapproximation of vaginal and abdominal fingers in bimanual pelvic examination. Vaginalfingers are placed in the posterior fornix and abdominal hand pressed down behind theuterus.
Jacquemier’s sign: Refer Chadwick
SignKustner’s Sign:
Sign of placental separation. On pushing the uterus upwards does not move thecord with it due to the separation.
Ladin’s Sign:
Softening in the midline of the uterus anteriorly at the junction of the uterus andcervix. It occurs at about 6 weeks gestation
Lambda Sign:
Ultrasonographic sign seen in dichorionic pregnancies. Due to the chorionic tissuein between the two layers of the membrane between the twins.
Lemon sign:
Ultrasound in open spina bifida. Shows abnormal anterior curvature of cerebellum. Due to the associated Arnold-Chiari malformation.
Osiander’s Sign:
Pulsations in the lateral fornix due to the increased vascularity.
Palmer’s Sign:
Regular rhythmic contractions of uterus felt as early as 6-8 weeks . It is a sign of pregnancy.
Piskacek’s Sign:
Asymmetric growth occurs to the uterus in initial stages of pregnancy due to thelateral implantation of the blastocyst. The area of implantation feels soft compared tothe other parts.
Robert’s Sign:
Radiological sign of intrauterine fetal death. X-ray shows presence of gas in thefetal great vessels. Earliest radiological sign of intrauterine fetal death
Schroder’s Sign:
A sign of placental separation. Uterus rises up when the separated placenta ispassed downwards.
Spalding Sign:
Sign of intrauterine fetal death. Overlapping of skull bones after fetal demise.Observed by ultrasonogrm.
Stallworthy’s Sign:
Slowing of fetal heart rate on pressing the head down I to the pelvis and promptrecovery on release of pressure is termed Stallworthy’s sign. This sign is suggestive of posterior placenta praevia.
Stuck Twin Sign:
Seen in twin to twin transfusion syndrome. Due to the severe oligohydramniossmaller twin is held in a fixed position along the uterine wall. This is called stuck twinsign.
‘T’ Sign:
Ultrasonographic sign seen in monochromic twins. As the intertwin membranedoes not have any chorionic tissue it gives rise to ‘T’ sign in ultrasound

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