Monday, 4 November 2013

Imp points

What type of healing occurs in clean surgical incision - Primary intention
Patau syndrome associated chromosome - Chromosome 13
Japanese man with weigh loss, anorexia, early satiety, epigastric abd pain, and palpable left supraclavicular lymph node. Endoscopy shows large irregular ulcer with elevated margins on the lesser curvature of the stomach. - Gastric carcinoma
Rules of 2 for Meckel diverticulum - 2% of population, 2cm long, 2 feet from ileocecal valve, 2 years old, and 2% of carcinoid tumors
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is assoc with MEN I - Gastrinoma
What cystic swelling of the chorionic villi is the most common precursor of choriocarcinoma - Hydatidiform mole
Most common Melanoma in dark-skinned people - Acral-lentiginous melanoma
Cancer associated with ret - MEN II and III syndromes
Which form of melanoma has the worst prognosis - Nodular melanoma
Most common cause of hematuria - Infection
What type of hemostasis in an intravascular space consists of fibrin, plts, RBCs, and WBCs? - Thrombus
What cardiomyopathy is due to a ventricular outflow obstruction as a result of septal hypertrophy and leads to sudden cardiac death in young athletes? - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Most common Primary tumor metstasis to the bone - Breast
Downward displacement of the cerebellar vermis and medulla compressing the fourth ventricle and leading to obstructive hydrocephalus - Arnold-Chiari Type 2
What coronary artery disease is seen in Japanese infants and kids less than 4 with acute febrile illness, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, and lymphadenopathy - Kawasaki
Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with decreased iron, TIBC, and % sat; increased ferritin - Anemia of chronic disease
Term for severe vomiting resultinig in linear lacerations at the GE junction - Mallory-Weiss syndrome
Causes of avascular necrosis of the bone - Fractures, trauma, sickle-cell, caisson disease, steroid use, gaucher disease
Most common cause of right heart failure - Left heart failure
Criteria to differentiate an ulcer from an erosion or carcinoma - Less than 3cm, Clean base, Level with surrounding mucosa
What benign bone tumor is associated with Gardner syndrome - Osteoma
Most common cause of Meningitis in military recruitsNeisseria meningitides
Goodpasture Ag is a component of what type of collagenType IV
Cardiac muscle regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent?Permanent
Most common cause of Meningitis in adultsStrep pneumoniae
Most common Route for infectious arthritisHematogenous
Cancer associated with alkylating agentsLeukemias and lymphomas
What syndrome is due to anti-GBM abs directed against the lung and kidney Goodpasture syndrome
Most causative organism of acute acnePropionibacterium acnes
B-cell neoplasm with CD19, CD20, CD5 (T-cell marker), CD23, and CD-10 negativeCLL (B-cell origin)
What vitamin is a component of the enzymes fatty acid synthase and acyl CoAPantothenic acid
What type of erythema is seen in rheumatic feverErythema marginatum
Form of coarctation of the aorta assoc with Turner syndromePreductal (infantile)
Granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 throughout the glomerulus Postinfectious GN
Most common cause of chronic pancreatitisAlcohol abuse
What female pathology is associated with endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus commonly affecting the ovaries as chocolate cysts Endometriosis
Syndrome with multiple adenomatous colonic polyps and CNS gliomasTurcot syndrome
Most common cause of GN in the worldIgA nephropathy
What PG is associated with maintaining patency of the ductus arteriosus PGE (along with low O2 tension)
Defic of intrinsic factor ->Pernicious anemia (due to b12 defic)
Components of complement cascade that make for MACC5b-C9
Cancer associated with CDK4Melanoma
Most common cause of Walking pneumonia seen in teens and military recruitsMycoplasma pneumoniae
Megaloblastic anemia and thrombocytopenia are signs of what vitamin deficiencyFolic acid
Most common Germ cell tumor in menSeminoma
Low levels of Ca and PO4 associated withHypoparathyroidism
What subset of adenocarcinoma arises from the terminal bronchioles and or/alveolar wallsBronchioloalveolar carcinoma
What skin condition has irregular blotchy patches of hyperpigmentation on the face commonly associated with OCP use and pregnancyMelasma
Virus associated with endemic form of Burkitt lymphomaEBV
Most common Thyroid tumorPapillary carcinoma
Mineral deficiency with leucopenia, neutropenia, and mental disorientation Copper
Term for collapse of vertebral body due to TBPott disease
Starry sky patternBurkitt lymphoma
Most common cause of acute renal failure in USAcute tubular necrosis
Most common congenital heart defect in adultsASD
Hereditary angioneurotic edema (AD) produces local edema in organs (GI, resp, skin). What enzyme deficiency causes increased capillary permeability due to release of vasoactive peptidesC1 esterase inhibitor
Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn: Circulating Ab-Ag immune complexes deposited in tissue result in neutrophil attraction and the release of lysosomal enzymesType III hypersensitivity (immune complex)
Disorder of bone remodeling resulting in thick weak bones associated with high-output cardiac failurePaget disease (osteitis deformans)
Which hepatitis B Ag correlates with infectivity and viral proliferatioinHBeAb
Term for RBC fragmentsSchistocytes
Most common Bone tumorMetastatic
What herpes virus is associated with Kaposi sarcomaHHV 8
What cancer of the male genitourinary system is associated with osteoblastic bony metastasisProstatic carcinoma
What mushroom poisoning is associated with fulminant hepatitis with extensive liver necrosisAmanita phalloides
Does pancreatic insufficiency result in B12 malabsorption?Yes – panc enzymes begin breakdown of B12-R complex in duodenum
Cardiac tumor associated w/ tuberous sclerosisRhabdomyoma
Three B’s of adult polycystic kidneysBig, Bilateral, Berry aneurysm
Substance used to test plt’s response in von Willebrand diseaseRistocetin
Macro-ovalocytes in the peripheral blood smear are formed from what cell in the bone marrowMegaloblasts
Most common heart defect in down syndromeEndocardial cushion defect
What pattern of inheritance is G-P-PD deficiencyX-linked recessive
What ovarian disease involves psammoma bodies – Serocystadenocarcinoma
PKU deficiency - Phenylalanine hydroxylase
Which form of emphysema is associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency – Panacinar
Most common lobes affected in herpes encephalitis - Temporal lobes
What is the term for the appearance of the kidney in malignant HTN - Flea-bitten kidney (also seen in pyelonephritis) – has petechiae on it’s surface
What organ must metastasize for carcinoid heart disease to occur – Liver
Most common circulating Ig in plasma – IgG
What is the tetralogy of fallot? - VSD, RVH, overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis
Call-Exner bodies - Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
What gene inhibits apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria - Bcl-2
Multiple schwannomas, café au lait spots, Lisch nodules, chromosome 17q - Neurofibromatosis I (Neurofibromatosis II is chrom 22q with no Lisch nodules)
Most common Renal cell cancer type - Clear cell
Most common cause of UTI - E coli
What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with hyperglycemia, sweating, hunger, confusion, and icreased C-peptide levels? – Insulinoma
What AD GI neoplasia produces multiple adenomatous polyps, osteomas, fibromas, and epidural inclusion cysts - Gardner syndrome
Hep virus that is an enveloped RNA flavivirus - Hep C
Cancer associated with erb-1 - Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
What stromal tumor in males is characterized histologically with crystalloids of Reinke - Leydig cell tumor
Most common cause of hypothyroidism in US – Iatrogenic
Most common cause of endocarditis following biliary infections - Enterococcus faecalis
Renal epithelial casts in the urine - Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
What 3 LTs are associated with bronchospasms and an increase in vessel permeability and vasoconstriction - LC4, LD4, LE4
Term for raised fluid filled cavity up to 0.5 cm that lies between layers of the skin – Vesicle
Most common Brain tumor – Metastatic
Which intergrin mediates adhesion by binding to lymphocyte function associated Ag 1 (LFA-1) and MAC-1 leukocyte receptors - Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1
3 enzymes that protect the cell from oxygen derived free radicals - SOD, Glutathione peroxidase, catalase
What component of the basement membrane binds to collagen type IV and hep sulfate and is a cell surface receptor - Laminin
Most common CNS infection in AIDS – Toxoplasmosis
Most common Benign breast tumor in females under 35 – Fibroadenoma
What lymphoma is associated with bleeding and cryoglobulin precipitation at low temperatures, headache and confusion due to hyperviscosity, IgM M-protein spike on electrophoresis and Russell bodies - Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia
What CNS developmental abnormality is assoc with 90% of syringomyelia - Arnold Chiari malformation type 2
Notching of the ribs, seen on CXR in pts with postductal coarctation of the aorta is due to collaterization of what arteries? - Dilation of internal mammary arteries
The 4 DNA oncogenic viruses - HPV, EBV, Hep B, Kaposi sarcoma
Glycogen storage disease due to deficiency of muscle phosphorylase - McArdle’s syndrome
Average volume of RBC – MCV
Cancer associated with sis - Astrocytoma
Most common location of gastric ulcer - Lesser curvature of the antrum
4 causes of hypochromatic microcytic anemia with low MCV – Sideroblastic anemias (porphyrin and heme synthesis disorders), Thalassemia, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning
What AD disorder due to a mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 results in normal-size vertebral column and skull and short, thick extremities – Achondroplasia
Most common Complement deficiency - C2 deficiency
What is the tumor at the bifurcation of the right and left hepatic ducts - Klatskin tumor
Most common colonic diverticula - Sigmoid colon
What cell type involves humoral immunity - B lymphocyte
Deletion to maternal chromosome 15 results in - Angelman syndrome
What rapidly progressive and aggressive T-cell lymphoma affects young males with a mediastinal mass (thymic) - Lymphoblastic lymphoma
Neurofibromatosis Type I associated chromosome - Chromosome 17
Most common cause of Meningitis in kids 12 months – 6 years - Haemophilus influenza type B
Neurofibrillary tangles – Alzheimers
Cancer associated with chromium and nickel - Bronchogenic carcinoma
What are the 3 main components of amyloid - Fibrillary protein, amyloid protein, and glycosaminoglycans (mostly hep sulfate)
Painless hyperemic lesions on palms and soles associated with bacterial endocarditis - Janeway lesions
What form of hemophilia is x-linked recessive and is due to a deficiency in factor 9 - Hemophilia B
Cancer associated with vinyl chloride - Angiosarcoma of the liver
What disease do u see IgA deposits in small vessels of the skin and kidneys - Henoch-Schonlein purpura
Cancer likely to affect English chimney sweeps - Scrotal cancer, due to high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Curschmann spirals - Bronchial asthma (whorled mucus plugs)
Most common site of Ulcerative colitis - Rectum
AR CNS disorder presenting in early childhood with gait ataxia, loss of DTRs, impaired vibratory sensation, hand clumsiness, and loss of position sense - Friedreich ataxia
Follicular lymphoma chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 14, 18
What AA is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6 on the beta-chain in patients with sickle cell - Valine
Huntington disease associated chromosome - Chromosome 4p
Term for tissue-based basophils - Mast cells
Bence-Jones proteinuria - Multiple myeloma
What protein does ELISA use for dx’ing HIV - p24 protein
A 20 year old college student has fever, grey white membranes over the tonsils, posterior auricular lymphadenitis, and hepatosplenomegaly. What is the dx? What tests would confirm it? - EBV infections resulting in infectious mono can be dx’ed by the Monospot test. May be negative in the first week
Most common cause of death in SLE - Renal failure
What normochromic normocytic AD anemia has splenomegaly and increased osmotic fragility - Hereditary spherocytosis
What vasculitis affects a 30-year old Asian female having visual field deficits, dizziness, decreased blood pressure, and weakened pulses in the upper extremities - Takayasu arteritis (medium-size to large vessels)
EBV is associated with - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma
Hematoxylin or eosin? Calcium - Hematoxylin
Iron deficient middle aged women with esophageal webs - Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Hematoxylin or eosin? Bacteria – Hematoxylin
Smooth muscle regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable
Most common cause of Cushing syndrome - Pituitary adenoma
Most common cause of acute tubular necrosis – Ischemia
Name of tumor when gastric carcinoma spreads to ovaries - Krukenberg tumor
Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with normal iron, TIBC, % sat, and ferritin - Thalassemia minor
Angina characterized by coronary artery luminal narrowing, symptom occurrence during exertion, ST depression - Stable angina
Most common cause of Erysipelas - Strep pyogenes
M3 AML chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 15, 17
9:21pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Comprises 40% of testicular tumor s in children – Teratoma
Most common Renal pathology in pts with SLE - Diffuse proliferative GN
Most common cause of acute bacterial endocarditis - Staph aureus
Heinz bodies - G-6-PD deficiency
Which pneumoconiosis is associated with miners, metal grinders, and sandblasters – Silicosis
Term for Ca phosphate precip in dying or necrotic tissue - Dystrophic calcification
Myeloid disorder characterized by increased Hct, blood viscosity, basophils, and eosinophil; intense pruritis; and gastric ulcers due to histamine release from basophils, increased leukocyte alkaline phosphate, and plethora - Polycythemia vera (a risk factor for acute leukemias)
Most common Neurotransmitter in the brain – GABA
Most common Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world - Cervical neoplasia
Fat, forty, female, fertile, etc. risk factor for - Cholesterol gallstones
Most common type of PUD - Duodenal ulcers (4X more common than gastric)
What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3 – Copper
Breast malignancy with tumor cells having halo around the nucleus - Paget disease of the breast (malignant cells invade the epidermis of the skin)
2 most common causes of epididymitis in males less than 35 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
What AD disease is associated with chromosome 4p, does not present until 30’s, involves atrophy of the caudate, dilation of the lateral and third ventricles, and signs of exptrapydramidal lesions - Huntington disesaea
Hep virus that is a small circular RNA virus with defective envelope - Hep D
Hematoxylin or eosin? Fibrin – Eosin
Most common cause of Chancre - Haemophilus ducreyi
Most common Location of ependymomas in kids - 4th ventricle
Type of exudate from meningiococcal infection - Purulent exudates
What condition results from 46XX karyotype and female internal organs with virilized external genitalia - Female pseudohermaphroditism
What syndrome occurs when pelvic inflammatory disease ascends to surround the liver capsule in violin string adhesions - Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Most common Benign tumor of the ovary – Serocystadenoma
What metal poisoning causes mental retardation, somnolence, convulsions, and encephalopathy – Lead
Excessive fibrosis throughout the body via increased fibroblast activity, women>men, 30’s-50’s – Scleroderma
Renal disease in diabetics seen as a halo of capillaries around the mesangial nodules - Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease
Most common Eye tumor in kids - Retinoblastoma
TA 90 Is a tumour marker for melnoma
Clinical use of Friedmans curve?
For diagnosing prolonged latent phase
2.how much is subpubic angle?
85 degrees
3.most common type of presentation?
Left occipitotransverse
4.which is the anteroposterior diameter is clinically measured?
Diagonal conjugate
5.which is engaging diameter?
Suboccipitofrontal
6. What is the minimum diagonal conjugate that should be present to allow vaginal delivery?
Should be more than 11.5cm
7.what is the engaging diameter in fully flexed brow presentation?
Submentbregmatic
8.thyroid values in pregnency?
Thyroid binding globulins,t3,t4 bounded forms increased but total thyroid harmones level are normal so pregnemcy is a euthyroid condition
Fat, forty, female, fertile, etc. risk factor for - Cholesterol gallstones
Most common type of PUD - Duodenal ulcers (4X more common than gastric)
What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3 – Copper
Breast malignancy with tumor cells having halo around the nucleus - Paget disease of the breast (malignant cells invade the epidermis of the skin)
2 most common causes of epididymitis in males less than 35 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis
What AD disease is associated with chromosome 4p, does not present until 30’s, involves atrophy of the caudate, dilation of the lateral and third ventricles, and signs of exptrapydramidal lesions - Huntington disesaea
Hep virus that is a small circular RNA virus with defective envelope - Hep D
Hematoxylin or eosin? Fibrin – Eosin
Most common cause of Chancre - Haemophilus ducreyi
Most common Location of ependymomas in kids - 4th ventricle
Type of exudate from meningiococcal infection - Purulent exudates
What condition results from 46XX karyotype and female internal organs with virilized external genitalia - Female pseudohermaphrodite
What syndrome occurs when pelvic inflammatory disease ascends to surround the liver capsule in violin string adhesions - Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Most common Benign tumor of the ovary – Serocystadenoma
What metal poisoning causes mental retardation, somnolence, convulsions, and encephalopathy – Lead
Excessive fibrosis throughout the body via increased fibroblast activity, women>men, 30’s-50’s – Scleroderma
Renal disease in diabetics seen as a halo of capillaries around the mesangial nodules - Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease
Most common Eye tumor in kids - Retinoblastoma
Colon Cancer tumor suppression genes-APC, DCC, p53
Gastric Adenocarcinoma markers-CEA and bombesin
HCC markers-AFP and alpha-1-AT
Pancreatic Cancer tumor suppression gene-DPC
Peripheral nerve tumor suppressor gene-NF-1 (neurofibromatosis 1)
Plummer-Vinson syndrome triad-Dysphagia (due to webs in the upper esophagus), atrophic glossitis, iron-deficiency anemia
Pulseless disease-Takayasu arteritis - stenosis of aortic arch and its large branches with ischemia to upper part of the body
S-100-Marker for melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas
Stomach Cancer tumor suppressor gene-DCC
Trousseau Sign - Migratory thromophlebitis associated with tumors of pancreas, lung, and colon
3 causes of transudate - CHF, cirrhosis, nephrosis
4 right to left congenital cardiac shunts - Truncus arteriosus, Tricuspid atresia,
Transposition of the great vessels, Tetralogy of fallot
AD disease assoc with chrom 15 in which the pt has long extrems, lax joints, pigeon chest, and posterior mitral leaflet prolapse and is prone to developing dissecting aortic aneurysm - Marfan syndrome
AR disorder with neutropenia, defective degranulation, and delayed microbial killing due to a problem in chemotaxis and migration - Chediak-Higashi syndrome
AR form of SCID associated chromosome - Chromosome 20q (deficiency in adenosine deaminase)
Are live vaccines contraindicated in SCID – Yes
Calcification of the gallbladder seen on x-ray due to chronic cholecystitis or adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder - Porcelain gallbladder
Most common vasulitis in children is HSP
2.HSP assoctd with immunecomplex deposition lead to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.its presentation pertaining to occlusion vessels of particular organ like acute abdomen
3.type of intususception in HSP is Ileo ileal where as ileocolic is mc in idiopathic intususception
4.thrombocytopenia nt associated with HSP It is associated with TTP
5.Serum compliments are normal in HSP
5.Type of immunoglobulins associated with HSP?
IgA
6.other name for kawasaki disease?
Mucocutaneous lymhnode syndrome
7.raised ESR associated conditions are-
kawasaki disease
pul.tuberculosis
temporal arteritis
8.sweet syndrome associated with-
fever plus skin lesions also known as Neutrophilic dermatosis
9.Cerebral herniation resulting in compression of anterior cerebral artery - Cingulate gyrus herniation
CNS tumor with tinnitus and hearing loss – Schwannoma
CSF: Opening pressure elevated, WBCs very elevated (90% PMNs) glucose low, protein elevated - Bacterial meningitis
Does ELISA or Western Blot confirm HIV dx - ELISA screens, Western confirms
Hematoxylin or eosin? RBCs – Eosin
Is monocytosis seen with TB? – Yes
Liver regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable
Malignant tumor of the skin associated with Birbeck granules - Histiocytosis X
Mallory bodies - Chronic alcoholic
Mineral associated with impaired glucose tolerance – Chromium
Most common cause of anovulation - Polycystic ovary
Most common cause of death in neonates - Neonatal RDS
Most common congenital cardiac anomaly – VSD
Most common esophageal cancer in the world - Squamous cell carcinoma
Most common form of non-hodgkin lymphoma in the US - Follicular lymphoma
Most common hematologic cause of papillary necrosis - Sickle cell
Most common Malignancy in kids – ALL
Most common Pituitary tumor - Chromophobe adenoma
Most common Primary lung cancer – Adenocarcinoma
Most common Subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma - Nodular sclerosis
Nephrotic syndrome criteria - > 3.5 g/day protein in urine, generalized edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia
Osteoblasts regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable
RBC casts in the urine - Acute GN
RBCs in the urine - Bladder carcinoma
RBCs with smooth undulations on the surface of their membrane, commonly seen in uremia - Burr cells (echinocytes)
Reed-Sternberg cells - Hodgkin lymphoma
Senile plaques – Alzheimers
Term for a large VSD that leads to pulmonary HTN, RVH, and cyanosis due to right-to-left reversal of the shunt - Eisenmenger syndrome (can also occur with any any left-to-right shunt)
Term for dilated veins within the spermatic cord? – Varicocele
Term for TB with cervical lymph node involvement – Scrofula
Tumor marker associated with seminomas - Placental alk phosphatase
Virchow triad - Assoc with thrombus formation: endothelial injury, changes in laminar flow, and hypercoagulation
Arises from adrenal medulla, displaces and crosses the midline, metastasizes early, most common solid tumor, seen 2-4 yrs – Neuroblastoma
Burkitt lymphoma chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 8, 14
Cancer associated with PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase - Prostate cancer
Cerebral vessel associated with EDH - Middle meningeal artery
Cerebral vessel associated with SAH - Berry aneurysm in the circle of Willis
Codman triangle on X-ray – Osteosarcoma
Condition with dimpling of kidney surface - Pyelonephritis
Fibroblasts regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? - Stable
Hematoxylin or eosin? Cytoplasm - Eosin
Hematoxylin or eosin? Nucleoli - Hematoxylin
Hep virus that is a naked capsid RNA picornavirus - Hep A
How many Jones criteria is required to make dx of rheumatic fever - 2 major or one major and two minor
Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with increased iron, decreased TIBC, increased % sat, and increased ferritin - Sideroblastic anemia
Influx of what ion is associated with irreversible cell injury – Calcium
Keloid collagen - Type III
Most common Aquired GI emergency in infancy - Necrotizing entercolitis
Most common cause of death in Diabetic – MI
Most common cause of painless hematuria - Renal cell carcinoma
Most common cause of Sinusitis and otitis media in kids – Pneumococcus
Most common Chronic metal poisoning – Lead
Most common CNS tumor in kids - Medulla blastoma
Most common nonorganic pneumoconiosis - Asbestosis
Most common Primary malignant tumor of lung - Adenocarcinoma (30-35%)
Most common Tumor on sun exposed sites - Basal cell carcinoma
Most common Type of hernias in males under 500 – Indirect
Oxidation of Hb forms what in patients with G6-PD defic - Heinz bodies
Product(s) of arachidonic acid – Pain and fever - PGE2
RBC with a peripheral rim of Hb and a dark central Hb containing area - Target cell
Reinke crystals - Leydig cell tumor
Skin condition that is a localized proliferation of melanocytes presenting as small, oval, light brown macules - Benign lentigo
Term for pelvic inflammatory disease of the fallopian tubes – Salpingitis
Term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in pts with neurofibromatosis type I - Lisch nodules
Most common Primary malignant tumor of lung - Adenocarcinoma (30-35%)
Most common Tumor on sun exposed sites - Basal cell carcinoma
Most common Type of hernias in males under 500 – Indirect
Oxidation of Hb forms what in patients with G6-PD defic - Heinz bodies
Product(s) of arachidonic acid – Pain and fever - PGE2
RBC with a peripheral rim of Hb and a dark central Hb containing area - Target cell
Reinke crystals - Leydig cell tumor
Skin condition that is a localized proliferation of melanocytes presenting as small, oval, light brown macules - Benign lentigo
Term for pelvic inflammatory disease of the fallopian tubes – Salpingitis
Term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in pts with neurofibromatosis type I - Lisch nodules
The 4 chemotactic factors for neutrophils - N-formyl-methionine, LTB4, C5a, and IL-8
Turner syndrome karyotype - 45XO
Urinary metabolite increased in pts with carcinoid syndrome - 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)
What 2 Abs are used to dx Hashimoto’s? - Antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal Abs
What AR disorder is due to a deficiency in glycoprotein IIb-IIIa resulting in a defect in plt aggregation - Glanzmann syndrome
What chemical can be dangerous if you work in the aerospace industry or in nuclear plants – Beryllium
What CNS tumor arises from Rathke’s pouch – Craniopharyngioma
What factor gets activated in the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade - Factor VII (XII for intrinsic)
What is the term for fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles in the kidney secondary to malignant HGN - Onion skinning
What pathology is associated with podagra, tophi in the ear, and PMNs with monosodium urate crystals – Gout
What percentage of the bone marrow must be composed of blast for leukemia to be considered - At least 30% blast in the bone marrow
What protein causes fibrolysis – Plasmin
What skin carcinoma is a superficial dermal infiltrate of T lymphocytes seen in males more than 40 years old and presents as scaly red patches or plaques - Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
What thyroid carcinoma secretes calcitonin and arises from the parafollicular C cells - Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
What type of acute metal poisoning involves stomach and colon erosion and acute tubular necrosis - Mercury
What viral infection in patients with sickle cell anemia results in aplastic crisis - Parvovirus B19
Which measures extrinsic? PT or PTT - PT for extrinsic (wPeT – warfarin extrinsic), hPitTT (heparin intrinsic)
White spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage - Roth spots – seen in bacterial endocarditis
2 lysosomal storage diseases with cherry-red spots on the retina - Niemann-Pick and Tay-Sachs
2 most common causes of epididymitis in males over 35 - E Coli and Pseudomonas
3 Abs used to make SLE dx - ANA, anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith
3 most common sites for left-sided heart embolisms to metastasize - Brain, spleen, kidney
4 most common causes of femoral head necrosis - Steroids, Alcohol, Scuba diving, Sickle cell anemia
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 15,17
Avidin decreases absorption of what vitamin - Biotin
Cancer associated with Ki-ras - Pancreas and colon
Cancer associated with Ki-ras and erb-2 - Lung cancer
Cancer associated with N-myc - Neuroblastoma
Criteria for chronic bronchitis dx - 3 months of productive cough in 2 consecutive years
Decreasd plts, prolonged PT and PTT, decreased fibrinogen, and increased fibrin split products (D-dimers) - Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
Glycogen storage disease due to deficiency of lysosomal glucosidase - Pompe’s disease
In which form of emphysema, panacinar or centriacinar, is the effect worse in the apical segments of the upper lobes - Centriacinar worse in upper lobes, panacinar worse in base of the lower lobes
Keloid collagen type - Type III
Lucid interval - Epidural Hematoma
Malignant neoplasm of the bone associated with Homer-Wright pseudorosettes; onion skinning of the periosteum on x-rays of the femur, pelvis, and tibia, and chromosome
11;22 translocation - Ewing’s sarcoma
Most common Bladder tumor - Transitional cell carcinoma
Most common cardiac anomaly in kids - PDA
Most common cause of diarrhea in kids – Rotavirus
Most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis - Strep viridans
Most common childhood disease in US - Congenital heart failure
Most common Liver tumor - Metastatic carcinoma
Most common organism associated with liver abscesses - Entamoeba histolytica
Most common primary malignant tumor in bone – Osteosarcoma
Most common Site for ectopic abdominal pregnancy - Rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)
Most common Site of ischemia in GI tract - Splenic flexure
Most common Tumor in men 15-35 - Testicular tumors
Most common Type of hernias seen in males over 50 – Direct
Palpable, elevated solid mass up to 0.5 cm - Papule
Pheochromocytoma rule of 10’s - 10% bilateral, 10% malignant, 10% familial, 10% children, 10% outside adrenal gland
Term for cytoplasmic remnants of RNA in RBCs, seen in lead poisoning - Basophilic stippling
Term for speckled appearance of iris in Downs pts - Brushfield spots
Triad of fat embolism - Petechiae, Hyperactive mental status, Occurrence within 24-48 of initial insult
Two most common viral infections in HIV - CMV retinitis and HSV-2Type of exudate from diphtheria infection - Pseudomembranous exudates
Type of exudate from rickettsial infection - Hemorrhagic exudates
Type of exudate from uremic pericarditis - Fibrinous exudates
Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn: IgE-mediated release of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells; need prior exposure to Ag in the past; eosinophils amplify and continue rxn; can be systemic or localized - Type I hypersensitivity (anaphylactic)
Weeks to monthes after tx abrupt onset of oliguria and azotemia, seen as neutrophilic vasculitis and interstitial lymphocytes - Acute rejection
What are the 3 causes of normochromic, normocytic anemia with a normal MCV and a low retic count? - Marrow failure, cancer, and leukemia

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