Saturday, 2 November 2013

Imp Points

What type of healing occurs in clean surgical incision - Primary intention

Patau syndrome associated chromosome - Chromosome 13

Japanese man with weigh loss, anorexia, early satiety, epigastric abd pain, and palpable left supraclavicular lymph node. Endoscopy shows large irregular ulcer with elevated margins on the lesser curvature of the stomach. - Gastric carcinoma

Rules of 2 for Meckel diverticulum - 2% of population, 2cm long, 2 feet from ileocecal valve, 2 years old, and 2% of carcinoid tumors

What pancreatic islet cell tumor is assoc with MEN I - Gastrinoma

What cystic swelling of the chorionic villi is the most common precursor of choriocarcinoma - Hydatidiform mole

Most common Melanoma in dark-skinned people - Acral-lentiginous melanoma
9:17pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Cancer associated with ret - MEN II and III syndromes

Which form of melanoma has the worst prognosis - Nodular melanoma

Most common cause of hematuria - Infection

What type of hemostasis in an intravascular space consists of fibrin, plts, RBCs, and WBCs? - Thrombus

What cardiomyopathy is due to a ventricular outflow obstruction as a result of septal hypertrophy and leads to sudden cardiac death in young athletes? - Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Most common Primary tumor metstasis to the bone - Breast

Downward displacement of the cerebellar vermis and medulla compressing the fourth ventricle and leading to obstructive hydrocephalus - Arnold-Chiari Type 2
9:18pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What coronary artery disease is seen in Japanese infants and kids less than 4 with acute febrile illness, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash, and lymphadenopathy - Kawasaki

Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with decreased iron, TIBC, and % sat; increased ferritin - Anemia of chronic disease

Term for severe vomiting resultinig in linear lacerations at the GE junction - Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Causes of avascular necrosis of the bone - Fractures, trauma, sickle-cell, caisson disease, steroid use, gaucher disease

Most common cause of right heart failure - Left heart failure

Criteria to differentiate an ulcer from an erosion or carcinoma - Less than 3cm, Clean base, Level with surrounding mucosa

What benign bone tumor is associated with Gardner syndrome - Osteoma
9:18pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common cause of Meningitis in military recruits Neisseria meningitides

Goodpasture Ag is a component of what type of collagen Type IV

Cardiac muscle regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? Permanent

Most common cause of Meningitis in adults Strep pneumoniae

Most common Route for infectious arthritis Hematogenous

Cancer associated with alkylating agents Leukemias and lymphomas

What syndrome is due to anti-GBM abs directed against the lung and kidney Goodpasture syndrome

Most causative organism of acute acne Propionibacterium acnes
B-cell neoplasm with CD19, CD20, CD5 (T-cell marker), CD23, and CD-10 negative CLL (B-cell origin)

What vitamin is a component of the enzymes fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA Pantothenic acid

What type of erythema is seen in rheumatic fever Erythema marginatum

Form of coarctation of the aorta assoc with Turner syndrome Preductal (infantile)

Granular deposits of IgG, IgM, and C3 throughout the glomerulus Postinfectious GN

Most common cause of chronic pancreatitis Alcohol abuse
9:18pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What female pathology is associated with endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus commonly affecting the ovaries as chocolate cysts Endometriosis

Syndrome with multiple adenomatous colonic polyps and CNS gliomas Turcot syndrome

Most common cause of GN in the world IgA nephropathy

What PG is associated with maintaining patency of the ductus arteriosus PGE (along with low O2 tension)

Defic of intrinsic factor -> Pernicious anemia (due to b12 defic)

Components of complement cascade that make for MAC C5b-C9

Cancer associated with CDK4 Melanoma

Most common cause of Walking pneumonia seen in teens and military recruits Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Megaloblastic anemia and thrombocytopenia are signs of what vitamin deficiency Folic acid

Most common Germ cell tumor in men Seminoma

Low levels of Ca and PO4 associated with Hypoparathyroidism
9:18pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What subset of adenocarcinoma arises from the terminal bronchioles and or/alveolar walls Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma

What skin condition has irregular blotchy patches of hyperpigmentation on the face commonly associated with OCP use and pregnancy Melasma

Virus associated with endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma EBV

Most common Thyroid tumor Papillary carcinoma

Mineral deficiency with leucopenia, neutropenia, and mental disorientation Copper

Term for collapse of vertebral body due to TB Pott disease

Starry sky pattern Burkitt lymphoma

Most common cause of acute renal failure in US Acute tubular necrosis

Most common congenital heart defect in adults ASD
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Hereditary angioneurotic edema (AD) produces local edema in organs (GI, resp, skin). What enzyme deficiency causes increased capillary permeability due to release of vasoactive peptides C1 esterase inhibitor

Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn: Circulating Ab-Ag immune complexes deposited in tissue result in neutrophil attraction and the release of lysosomal enzymes Type III hypersensitivity (immune complex)

Disorder of bone remodeling resulting in thick weak bones associated with high-output cardiac failure Paget disease (osteitis deformans)

Which hepatitis B Ag correlates with infectivity and viral proliferatioin HBeAb

Term for RBC fragments Schistocytes

Most common Bone tumor Metastatic

What herpes virus is associated with Kaposi sarcoma HHV 8

What cancer of the male genitourinary system is associated with osteoblastic bony metastasis Prostatic carcinoma
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What mushroom poisoning is associated with fulminant hepatitis with extensive liver necrosis Amanita phalloides

Does pancreatic insufficiency result in B12 malabsorption? Yes – panc enzymes begin breakdown of B12-R complex in duodenum

Cardiac tumor associated w/ tuberous sclerosis Rhabdomyoma

Three B’s of adult polycystic kidneys Big, Bilateral, Berry aneurysm

Substance used to test plt’s response in von Willebrand disease Ristocetin

Macro-ovalocytes in the peripheral blood smear are formed from what cell in the bone marrow Megaloblasts

Most common heart defect in down syndrome Endocardial cushion defect

What pattern of inheritance is G-P-PD deficiency X-linked recessive
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What ovarian disease involves psammoma bodies – Serocystadenocarcinoma

PKU deficiency - Phenylalanine hydroxylase

Which form of emphysema is associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency – Panacinar

Most common lobes affected in herpes encephalitis - Temporal lobes

What is the term for the appearance of the kidney in malignant HTN - Flea-bitten kidney (also seen in pyelonephritis) – has petechiae on it’s surface

What organ must metastasize for carcinoid heart disease to occur – Liver

Most common circulating Ig in plasma – IgG

What is the tetralogy of fallot? - VSD, RVH, overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis

Call-Exner bodies - Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What gene inhibits apoptosis by preventing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria - Bcl-2

Multiple schwannomas, café au lait spots, Lisch nodules, chromosome 17q - Neurofibromatosis I (Neurofibromatosis II is chrom 22q with no Lisch nodules)

Most common Renal cell cancer type - Clear cell

Most common cause of UTI - E coli

What pancreatic islet cell tumor is associated with hyperglycemia, sweating, hunger, confusion, and icreased C-peptide levels? – Insulinoma

What AD GI neoplasia produces multiple adenomatous polyps, osteomas, fibromas, and epidural inclusion cysts - Gardner syndrome

Hep virus that is an enveloped RNA flavivirus - Hep C

Cancer associated with erb-1 - Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What stromal tumor in males is characterized histologically with crystalloids of Reinke - Leydig cell tumor

Most common cause of hypothyroidism in US – Iatrogenic

Most common cause of endocarditis following biliary infections - Enterococcus faecalis

Renal epithelial casts in the urine - Acute toxic or viral nephrosis

What 3 LTs are associated with bronchospasms and an increase in vessel permeability and vasoconstriction - LC4, LD4, LE4

Term for raised fluid filled cavity up to 0.5 cm that lies between layers of the skin – Vesicle

Most common Brain tumor – Metastatic

Which intergrin mediates adhesion by binding to lymphocyte function associated Ag 1 (LFA-1) and MAC-1 leukocyte receptors - Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) 1
3 enzymes that protect the cell from oxygen derived free radicals - SOD, Glutathione peroxidase, catalase

What component of the basement membrane binds to collagen type IV and hep sulfate and is a cell surface receptor - Laminin
9:19pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common CNS infection in AIDS – Toxoplasmosis

Most common Benign breast tumor in females under 35 – Fibroadenoma

What lymphoma is associated with bleeding and cryoglobulin precipitation at low temperatures, headache and confusion due to hyperviscosity, IgM M-protein spike on electrophoresis and Russell bodies - Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia

What CNS developmental abnormality is assoc with 90% of syringomyelia - Arnold Chiari malformation type 2

Notching of the ribs, seen on CXR in pts with postductal coarctation of the aorta is due to collaterization of what arteries? - Dilation of internal mammary arteries
The 4 DNA oncogenic viruses - HPV, EBV, Hep B, Kaposi sarcoma

Glycogen storage disease due to deficiency of muscle phosphorylase - McArdle’s syndrome

Average volume of RBC – MCV

Cancer associated with sis - Astrocytoma
9:20pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common location of gastric ulcer - Lesser curvature of the antrum

4 causes of hypochromatic microcytic anemia with low MCV – Sideroblastic anemias (porphyrin and heme synthesis disorders), Thalassemia, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning

What AD disorder due to a mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 results in normal-size vertebral column and skull and short, thick extremities – Achondroplasia

Most common Complement deficiency - C2 deficiency

What is the tumor at the bifurcation of the right and left hepatic ducts - Klatskin tumor

Most common colonic diverticula - Sigmoid colon

What cell type involves humoral immunity - B lymphocyte

Deletion to maternal chromosome 15 results in - Angelman syndrome

What rapidly progressive and aggressive T-cell lymphoma affects young males with a mediastinal mass (thymic) - Lymphoblastic lymphoma

Neurofibromatosis Type I associated chromosome - Chromosome 17
9:20pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common cause of Meningitis in kids 12 months – 6 years - Haemophilus influenza type B

Neurofibrillary tangles – Alzheimers

Cancer associated with chromium and nickel - Bronchogenic carcinoma

What are the 3 main components of amyloid - Fibrillary protein, amyloid protein, and glycosaminoglycans (mostly hep sulfate)

Painless hyperemic lesions on palms and soles associated with bacterial endocarditis - Janeway lesions

What form of hemophilia is x-linked recessive and is due to a deficiency in factor 9 - Hemophilia B

Cancer associated with vinyl chloride - Angiosarcoma of the liver
9:20pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What disease do u see IgA deposits in small vessels of the skin and kidneys - Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Cancer likely to affect English chimney sweeps - Scrotal cancer, due to high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Curschmann spirals - Bronchial asthma (whorled mucus plugs)

Most common site of Ulcerative colitis - Rectum

AR CNS disorder presenting in early childhood with gait ataxia, loss of DTRs, impaired vibratory sensation, hand clumsiness, and loss of position sense - Friedreich ataxia

Follicular lymphoma chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 14, 18

What AA is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6 on the beta-chain in patients with sickle cell - Valine

Huntington disease associated chromosome - Chromosome 4p
9:20pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Term for tissue-based basophils - Mast cells

Bence-Jones proteinuria - Multiple myeloma

What protein does ELISA use for dx’ing HIV - p24 protein

A 20 year old college student has fever, grey white membranes over the tonsils, posterior auricular lymphadenitis, and hepatosplenomegaly. What is the dx? What tests would confirm it? - EBV infections resulting in infectious mono can be dx’ed by the Monospot test. May be negative in the first week

Most common cause of death in SLE - Renal failure

What normochromic normocytic AD anemia has splenomegaly and increased osmotic fragility - Hereditary spherocytosis

What vasculitis affects a 30-year old Asian female having visual field deficits, dizziness, decreased blood pressure, and weakened pulses in the upper extremities - Takayasu arteritis (medium-size to large vessels)

EBV is associated with - Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma

Hematoxylin or eosin? Calcium - Hematoxylin
9:20pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Iron deficient middle aged women with esophageal webs - Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Hematoxylin or eosin? Bacteria – Hematoxylin

Smooth muscle regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable

Most common cause of Cushing syndrome - Pituitary adenoma

Most common cause of acute tubular necrosis – Ischemia

Name of tumor when gastric carcinoma spreads to ovaries - Krukenberg tumor

Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with normal iron, TIBC, % sat, and ferritin - Thalassemia minor

Angina characterized by coronary artery luminal narrowing, symptom occurrence during exertion, ST depression - Stable angina

Most common cause of Erysipelas - Strep pyogenes

M3 AML chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 15, 17
9:21pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Comprises 40% of testicular tumor s in children – Teratoma

Most common Renal pathology in pts with SLE - Diffuse proliferative GN

Most common cause of acute bacterial endocarditis - Staph aureus

Heinz bodies - G-6-PD deficiency

Which pneumoconiosis is associated with miners, metal grinders, and sandblasters – Silicosis

Term for Ca phosphate precip in dying or necrotic tissue - Dystrophic calcification

Myeloid disorder characterized by increased Hct, blood viscosity, basophils, and eosinophil; intense pruritis; and gastric ulcers due to histamine release from basophils, increased leukocyte alkaline phosphate, and plethora - Polycythemia vera (a risk factor for acute leukemias)

Most common Neurotransmitter in the brain – GABA

Most common Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world - Cervical neoplasia
9:21pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Fat, forty, female, fertile, etc. risk factor for - Cholesterol gallstones

Most common type of PUD - Duodenal ulcers (4X more common than gastric)

What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3 – Copper

Breast malignancy with tumor cells having halo around the nucleus - Paget disease of the breast (malignant cells invade the epidermis of the skin)

2 most common causes of epididymitis in males less than 35 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis

What AD disease is associated with chromosome 4p, does not present until 30’s, involves atrophy of the caudate, dilation of the lateral and third ventricles, and signs of exptrapydramidal lesions - Huntington disesaea

Hep virus that is a small circular RNA virus with defective envelope - Hep D

Hematoxylin or eosin? Fibrin – Eosin

Most common cause of Chancre - Haemophilus ducreyi

Most common Location of ependymomas in kids - 4th ventricle

Type of exudate from meningiococcal infection - Purulent exudates

What condition results from 46XX karyotype and female internal organs with virilized external genitalia - Female pseudohermaphrodite
9:21pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What syndrome occurs when pelvic inflammatory disease ascends to surround the liver capsule in violin string adhesions - Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Most common Benign tumor of the ovary – Serocystadenoma

What metal poisoning causes mental retardation, somnolence, convulsions, and encephalopathy – Lead

Excessive fibrosis throughout the body via increased fibroblast activity, women>men, 30’s-50’s – Scleroderma

Renal disease in diabetics seen as a halo of capillaries around the mesangial nodules - Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease

Most common Eye tumor in kids - Retinoblastoma
9:22pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: TA 90 Is a tumour marker for melnoma
9:22pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Clinical use of Friedmans curve?
For diagnosing prolonged latent phase
2.how much is subpubic angle?
85 degrees
3.most common type of presentation?
Left occipitotransverse
4.which is the anteroposterior diameter is clinically measured?
Diagonal conjugate
5.which is engaging diameter?
Suboccipitofrontal
6. What is the minimum diagonal conjugate that should be present to allow vaginal delivery?
Should be more than 11.5cm
7.what is the engaging diameter in fully flexed brow presentation?
Submentbregmatic
8.thyroid values in pregnency?
Thyroid binding globulins,t3,t4 bounded forms increased but total thyroid harmones level are normal so pregnemcy is a euthyroid condition
9.
9:23pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Fat, forty, female, fertile, etc. risk factor for - Cholesterol gallstones

Most common type of PUD - Duodenal ulcers (4X more common than gastric)

What mineral is a component of cytochrome a/a3 – Copper

Breast malignancy with tumor cells having halo around the nucleus - Paget disease of the breast (malignant cells invade the epidermis of the skin)

2 most common causes of epididymitis in males less than 35 - Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis

What AD disease is associated with chromosome 4p, does not present until 30’s, involves atrophy of the caudate, dilation of the lateral and third ventricles, and signs of exptrapydramidal lesions - Huntington disesaea

Hep virus that is a small circular RNA virus with defective envelope - Hep D

Hematoxylin or eosin? Fibrin – Eosin

Most common cause of Chancre - Haemophilus ducreyi

Most common Location of ependymomas in kids - 4th ventricle

Type of exudate from meningiococcal infection - Purulent exudates

What condition results from 46XX karyotype and female internal organs with virilized external genitalia - Female pseudohermaphrodite
9:23pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What syndrome occurs when pelvic inflammatory disease ascends to surround the liver capsule in violin string adhesions - Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Most common Benign tumor of the ovary – Serocystadenoma

What metal poisoning causes mental retardation, somnolence, convulsions, and encephalopathy – Lead

Excessive fibrosis throughout the body via increased fibroblast activity, women>men, 30’s-50’s – Scleroderma

Renal disease in diabetics seen as a halo of capillaries around the mesangial nodules - Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease

Most common Eye tumor in kids - Retinoblastoma
9:23pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Colon Cancer tumor suppression genes-APC, DCC, p53

Gastric Adenocarcinoma markers-CEA and bombesin

HCC markers-AFP and alpha-1-AT

Pancreatic Cancer tumor suppression gene-DPC

Peripheral nerve tumor suppressor gene-NF-1 (neurofibromatosis 1)

Plummer-Vinson syndrome triad-Dysphagia (due to webs in the upper esophagus), atrophic glossitis, iron-deficiency anemia

Pulseless disease-Takayasu arteritis - stenosis of aortic arch and its large branches with ischemia to upper part of the body

S-100-Marker for melanoma, neural tumors, and astrocytomas

Stomach Cancer tumor suppressor gene-DCC

Trousseau Sign - Migratory thromophlebitis associated with tumors of pancreas, lung, and colon
9:23pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: 3 causes of transudate - CHF, cirrhosis, nephrosis

4 right to left congenital cardiac shunts - Truncus arteriosus, Tricuspid atresia,
Transposition of the great vessels, Tetralogy of fallot

AD disease assoc with chrom 15 in which the pt has long extrems, lax joints, pigeon chest, and posterior mitral leaflet prolapse and is prone to developing dissecting aortic aneurysm - Marfan syndrome

AR disorder with neutropenia, defective degranulation, and delayed microbial killing due to a problem in chemotaxis and migration - Chediak-Higashi syndrome

AR form of SCID associated chromosome - Chromosome 20q (deficiency in adenosine deaminase)

Are live vaccines contraindicated in SCID – Yes

Calcification of the gallbladder seen on x-ray due to chronic cholecystitis or adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder - Porcelain gallbladder
9:23pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common vasulitis in children is HSP
2.HSP assoctd with immunecomplex deposition lead to microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.its presentation pertaining to occlusion vessels of particular organ like acute abdomen
3.type of intususception in HSP is Ileo ileal where as ileocolic is mc in idiopathic intususception
4.thrombocytopenia nt associated with HSP It is associated with TTP
5.Serum compliments are normal in HSP
5.Type of immunoglobulins associated with HSP?
IgA
6.other name for kawasaki disease?
Mucocutaneous lymhnode syndrome
7.raised ESR associated conditions are-
kawasaki disease
pul.tuberculosis
temporal arteritis
8.sweet syndrome associated with-
fever plus skin lesions also known as Neutrophilic dermatosis
9.
9:24pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Cerebral herniation resulting in compression of anterior cerebral artery - Cingulate gyrus herniation

CNS tumor with tinnitus and hearing loss – Schwannoma

CSF: Opening pressure elevated, WBCs very elevated (90% PMNs) glucose low, protein elevated - Bacterial meningitis

Does ELISA or Western Blot confirm HIV dx - ELISA screens, Western confirms

Hematoxylin or eosin? RBCs – Eosin

Is monocytosis seen with TB? – Yes

Liver regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable

Malignant tumor of the skin associated with Birbeck granules - Histiocytosis X

Mallory bodies - Chronic alcoholic

Mineral associated with impaired glucose tolerance – Chromium

Most common cause of anovulation - Polycystic ovary

Most common cause of death in neonates - Neonatal RDS

Most common cause of infectious pancreatitis – Mumps
9:24pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common congenital cardiac anomaly – VSD

Most common esophageal cancer in the world - Squamous cell carcinoma

Most common form of non-hodgkin lymphoma in the US - Follicular lymphoma

Most common hematologic cause of papillary necrosis - Sickle cell

Most common Malignancy in kids – ALL

Most common Pituitary tumor - Chromophobe adenoma

Most common Primary lung cancer – Adenocarcinoma

Most common Subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma - Nodular sclerosis

Nephrotic syndrome criteria - > 3.5 g/day protein in urine, generalized edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia

Osteoblasts regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? – Stable
9:24pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: RBC casts in the urine - Acute GN

RBCs in the urine - Bladder carcinoma

RBCs with smooth undulations on the surface of their membrane, commonly seen in uremia - Burr cells (echinocytes)

Reed-Sternberg cells - Hodgkin lymphoma

Senile plaques – Alzheimers

Term for a large VSD that leads to pulmonary HTN, RVH, and cyanosis due to right-to-left reversal of the shunt - Eisenmenger syndrome (can also occur with any any left-to-right shunt)

Term for dilated veins within the spermatic cord? – Varicocele

Term for TB with cervical lymph node involvement – Scrofula

Tumor marker associated with seminomas - Placental alk phosphatase

Virchow triad - Assoc with thrombus formation: endothelial injury, changes in laminar flow, and hypercoagulation
9:24pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Arises from adrenal medulla, displaces and crosses the midline, metastasizes early, most common solid tumor, seen 2-4 yrs – Neuroblastoma

Burkitt lymphoma chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 8, 14

Cancer associated with PSA and prostatic acid phosphatase - Prostate cancer

Cerebral vessel associated with EDH - Middle meningeal artery

Cerebral vessel associated with SAH - Berry aneurysm in the circle of Willis

Codman triangle on X-ray – Osteosarcoma

Condition with dimpling of kidney surface - Pyelonephritis

Fibroblasts regeneration – labile, stable, or permanent? - Stable

Hematoxylin or eosin? Cytoplasm - Eosin

Hematoxylin or eosin? Nucleoli - Hematoxylin
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Hep virus that is a naked capsid RNA picornavirus - Hep A

How many Jones criteria is required to make dx of rheumatic fever - 2 major or one major and two minor

Hypochromatic microcytic anemia with increased iron, decreased TIBC, increased % sat, and increased ferritin - Sideroblastic anemia

Influx of what ion is associated with irreversible cell injury – Calcium

Keloid collagen - Type III

Most common Aquired GI emergency in infancy - Necrotizing entercolitis

Most common cause of death in Diabetic – MI

Most common cause of painless hematuria - Renal cell carcinoma

Most common cause of Sinusitis and otitis media in kids – Pneumococcus

Most common Chronic metal poisoning – Lead

Most common CNS tumor in kids - Medulla blastoma

Most common nonorganic pneumoconiosis - Asbestosis
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common Primary malignant tumor of lung - Adenocarcinoma (30-35%)

Most common Tumor on sun exposed sites - Basal cell carcinoma

Most common Type of hernias in males under 500 – Indirect

Oxidation of Hb forms what in patients with G6-PD defic - Heinz bodies

Product(s) of arachidonic acid – Pain and fever - PGE2

RBC with a peripheral rim of Hb and a dark central Hb containing area - Target cell

Reinke crystals - Leydig cell tumor

Skin condition that is a localized proliferation of melanocytes presenting as small, oval, light brown macules - Benign lentigo

Term for pelvic inflammatory disease of the fallopian tubes – Salpingitis

Term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in pts with neurofibromatosis type I - Lisch nodules
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common Primary malignant tumor of lung - Adenocarcinoma (30-35%)

Most common Tumor on sun exposed sites - Basal cell carcinoma

Most common Type of hernias in males under 500 – Indirect

Oxidation of Hb forms what in patients with G6-PD defic - Heinz bodies

Product(s) of arachidonic acid – Pain and fever - PGE2

RBC with a peripheral rim of Hb and a dark central Hb containing area - Target cell

Reinke crystals - Leydig cell tumor

Skin condition that is a localized proliferation of melanocytes presenting as small, oval, light brown macules - Benign lentigo

Term for pelvic inflammatory disease of the fallopian tubes – Salpingitis

Term for pigmented iris hamartomas seen in pts with neurofibromatosis type I - Lisch nodules
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: The 4 chemotactic factors for neutrophils - N-formyl-methionine, LTB4, C5a, and IL-8

Turner syndrome karyotype - 45XO

Urinary metabolite increased in pts with carcinoid syndrome - 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)

What 2 Abs are used to dx Hashimoto’s? - Antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal Abs

What AR disorder is due to a deficiency in glycoprotein IIb-IIIa resulting in a defect in plt aggregation - Glanzmann syndrome

What chemical can be dangerous if you work in the aerospace industry or in nuclear plants – Beryllium

What CNS tumor arises from Rathke’s pouch – Craniopharyngioma

What factor gets activated in the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade - Factor VII (XII for intrinsic)

What is the term for fibrinoid necrosis of the arterioles in the kidney secondary to malignant HGN - Onion skinning

What pathology is associated with podagra, tophi in the ear, and PMNs with monosodium urate crystals – Gout

What percentage of the bone marrow must be composed of blast for leukemia to be considered - At least 30% blast in the bone marrow
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: What protein causes fibrolysis – Plasmin

What skin carcinoma is a superficial dermal infiltrate of T lymphocytes seen in males more than 40 years old and presents as scaly red patches or plaques - Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)

What thyroid carcinoma secretes calcitonin and arises from the parafollicular C cells - Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

What type of acute metal poisoning involves stomach and colon erosion and acute tubular necrosis - Mercury

What viral infection in patients with sickle cell anemia results in aplastic crisis - Parvovirus B19

Which measures extrinsic? PT or PTT - PT for extrinsic (wPeT – warfarin extrinsic), hPitTT (heparin intrinsic)

White spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage - Roth spots – seen in bacterial endocarditis
9:25pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: 2 lysosomal storage diseases with cherry-red spots on the retina - Niemann-Pick and Tay-Sachs

2 most common causes of epididymitis in males over 35 - E Coli and Pseudomonas

3 Abs used to make SLE dx - ANA, anti-dsDNA, anti-Smith

3 most common sites for left-sided heart embolisms to metastasize - Brain, spleen, kidney

4 most common causes of femoral head necrosis - Steroids, Alcohol, Scuba diving, Sickle cell anemia

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3) chromosomal translocation - Chromosome 15,17

Avidin decreases absorption of what vitamin - Biotin

Cancer associated with Ki-ras - Pancreas and colon

Cancer associated with Ki-ras and erb-2 - Lung cancer

Cancer associated with N-myc - Neuroblastoma
9:26pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Criteria for chronic bronchitis dx - 3 months of productive cough in 2 consecutive years

Decreasd plts, prolonged PT and PTT, decreased fibrinogen, and increased fibrin split products (D-dimers) - Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Glycogen storage disease due to deficiency of lysosomal glucosidase - Pompe’s disease

In which form of emphysema, panacinar or centriacinar, is the effect worse in the apical segments of the upper lobes - Centriacinar worse in upper lobes, panacinar worse in base of the lower lobes

Keloid collagen type - Type III

Lucid interval - Epidural Hematoma

Malignant neoplasm of the bone associated with Homer-Wright pseudorosettes; onion skinning of the periosteum on x-rays of the femur, pelvis, and tibia, and chromosome
11;22 translocation - Ewing’s sarcoma

Most common Bladder tumor - Transitional cell carcinoma

Most common cardiac anomaly in kids - PDA
9:26pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Most common cause of diarrhea in kids – Rotavirus

Most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis - Strep viridans

Most common childhood disease in US - Congenital heart failure

Most common Liver tumor - Metastatic carcinoma

Most common organism associated with liver abscesses - Entamoeba histolytica

Most common primary malignant tumor in bone – Osteosarcoma

Most common Site for ectopic abdominal pregnancy - Rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)

Most common Site of ischemia in GI tract - Splenic flexure

Most common Tumor in men 15-35 - Testicular tumors

Most common Type of hernias seen in males over 50 – Direct

Palpable, elevated solid mass up to 0.5 cm - Papule
9:26pm, Jul 15 - Mahesh 2929: Pheochromocytoma rule of 10’s - 10% bilateral, 10% malignant, 10% familial, 10% children, 10% outside adrenal gland

Term for cytoplasmic remnants of RNA in RBCs, seen in lead poisoning - Basophilic stippling

Term for speckled appearance of iris in Downs pts - Brushfield spots

Triad of fat embolism - Petechiae, Hyperactive mental status, Occurrence within 24-48 of initial insult

Two most common viral infections in HIV - CMV retinitis and HSV-2Type of exudate from diphtheria infection - Pseudomembranous exudates

Type of exudate from rickettsial infection - Hemorrhagic exudates

Type of exudate from uremic pericarditis - Fibrinous exudates

Type of Hypersensitivity Rxn: IgE-mediated release of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells; need prior exposure to Ag in the past; eosinophils amplify and continue rxn; can be systemic or localized - Type I hypersensitivity (anaphylactic)

Weeks to monthes after tx abrupt onset of oliguria and azotemia, seen as neutrophilic vasculitis and interstitial lymphocytes - Acute rejection

What are the 3 causes of normochromic, normocytic anemia with a normal MCV and a low retic count? - Marrow failure, cancer, and leukemia

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