Wednesday, 20 November 2013

General exam points

The OCP has an efficacy (theoretical effectiveness) of 99.9 percent, with a typical user failure rate of three percent per year. The Pearl Index is 0.1-0.2 (failure rate per 100 women using the method for one year)
Membranous glomerulonephritis in rheumatoid arthritis unassociated with gold or penicillamine treatment
General fertility rate (GFR) - the number of births in a year divided by the number of women aged 15–44, times 1000.

Internal rotation
• The movement involves the gradual turning of the occiput from its original position anteriorly toward the symphysis pubis.
• The main purpose of internal rotation is to place the occiput behind the pubic symphysis.
• Theories which explain the anterior rotation of the occiput:
1. Hart’s rule: The part of the fetal skull which presses on the levator ani muscle is pushed anteriorly with each recoil.
2. Pelvic shape: Pelvic outlet is greater in AP diameter. Hence, the head tries to accommodate in the
maximum available diameter.

Depressed skull fractures occur in the setting of spontaneous and operative deliveries, although the incidence is higher in the latter case. Depressed skull fractures that are associated with instrumental deliveries are significantly more likely to be associated with intracranial lesions



Elevated levels of serum chloride without increased levels of serum sodium occur as a result of clinical conditions that predispose to a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis.

CONDITIONS IN WHICH THE HEAD IS DELIVERED IN FLEXION ARE
1-Breech presentation:- complete sacroanterior
Breech with after coming head
2- Occipitoposterior presentation
3-Mentoanterior presentation



Synaesthesia is the simultaneous perception of different senses
Imagery means to use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas
Imagery: Imagery is simply the formation of any mental pictures. This simple process has great benefit when it comes to memory. By using imagery, we can enhance the processing of information into the memory system. For example, trying to remember a phone number by repeating it in your head is a common method, but what might enhance your processing of the information might be to use imagery - maybe visualize the numbers being written on a chalk board. This allows you to create a mental picture of the numbers that may be processed more completely.
The difference between the utricle and the saccule is that both provide information about changes in velocity when travelling either horizontally or vertically. The utricle is more sensitve to horizontal acceleration, whereas the saccule is more sensitive to vertical acceleration.

After lung and CNS infection, the next most commonly involved organs in disseminated cryptococcosis include the skin, the prostate, and the medullary cavity of bones.
Cutaneous manifestations (10-15% of cases) are as follows:
•Papules, pustules, nodules, ulcers, or draining sinuses
•Umbilicated papules in patients with AIDS
•Cellulitis with necrotizing vasculitis in organ transplant recipients
Squamous carcinoma is the most frequent neoplasm in the external auditory canal (EAC), about four times more common than basal carcinomas. This ratio is reversed in the pinna.

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