Monday, 25 November 2013

FM

ARSENIC POISONING
golden hair-- arsenic poisoning
tests for arsenic poisoning are marsch,,reinsch and gutzeit test
polyneurits,paraathesias nd encephalopathy seen in arsenic poisoning
hyperkeratosis of palms and soles seen
in chronic poisoning,hair,nail,skin samples are preserved
Other features are rain drop pigmentation and red velvety mucosa of stomach( rapidly absorbed and max amount seen in liver)
measles like fading
it mimics cholera
antidote--freshly precipitated fe2o3
commonly and most popular homicidal poison
The study of incremental lines in the enamel of tooth to assess the age of a person is known as Boyde’s Method
 Stakes method:: Upto age of 12years, by measuring dimension of teeth and weight of teeth one can make out the age
Taurodontism is a peculiar tooth form in which the body of the tooth and the pulp chamber are enlarged at the expense of the root. Seen in Mongols
Declaration of geneva--> Declaration of a physician's dedication to the humanitarian goals of medicine
Declaration of Oslo--> Therapeutic abortion.
Declaration of Helsinki-->Human experimentation and clinical trials
 Declaration of Tokyo--> Torture in medicine*
 Kennedy phenomenon deals with Evaluation of exit and entry wound
 Carabelli's cusp. This is variably expressed but, when present, is a projection that occurs on the lingual (tongue side) surface of the maxillar first molars. Rare among Asiatics but very widespread among Native Americans.
Quinacrine dihydrochloride is used for staining Y-chromosome
Acriflavin Schiff reagent is used for staining X—chromosome
 Davidson body (drumstick appearance) in neutrophil ' Gonadal biopsy (from testes or ovaries) is a confirmatory method of determining sex. Present in females and absent in males
 A person accused of criminal offence may be medically examined without his consent on the request of the police:: Section 53, CrPC
CRPC 54: Examination of arrested person by medical practitioner at the request of the arrested person.
 Negligence by Doctor: 4 D's
Duty bound
Derailed
Direct causation
Damage
 Algor mortis is the process by which the body cools after death as a result of loss of heat to the surroundings. A NOMOGRAPH is a diagram that allows a complicated mathematical relationship to be solved simply with a ruler.
Conditions causing postmortem caloricity:
   in heat regulation – sunstroke, pontine haemorrhage
Increased heat production in muscles – tetanus, strychnine poisoning
Bacterial / viral activity – septicemia / infections Intense asphyxia
Colour of post mortem lividity::
Normal – Bluish pink which later turns into bluish purple
Carbon monoxide – Bright cherry red
Cyanide – Pink
Phosphorous – Dark brown
Chlorates,nitrates,aniline – Chocolate brown
Hydrogen sulphide – Bluish green
Opiates – Black
Putrefaction is delayed in poisoning due to Carbolic acid, Barbiturates, lead, Datura, Arsenic, Strychnine, Cyanide

Typhoid
faget sign( relative bradycardia) seen in first week
rose spots occur on lower abdomen in second week
widal test is negative In First week nd strongly positive in second week
complications like septicemia,perforation occur in third week
hepatospleenomegaly seen in most cases
typhoid fever has other names like slow fever,,gastric fever,,pythogenic fever
cftr gene implicated in cystic fibrosis provides protection against typhoid infection
treatment of choice-- third generation cephalosporins
best method of diagnosis-- bone marrow culture
mercury poisoning
Mnemonic--Black MEAT
Blue black lining of gums
mercuria lentis(Brown mercury deposits on lens)-- early feature
erethism( neuropsychiatric. Changes in form of shyness,irritability,tremors,loss of memory
acrodynia(pink disease-- pink,puffy,paraesthesia,peeling of skin)(all india-93)
tremors danburry/ hatter's shakes/ glass blower's shakes
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Other features of mercury
shaking palsy( aiims97)
minimata ds occured by eating poisoned mercurial fishes,,an example of point epidemic( aiims)
acute mercury poisoning involves--pct(all india--96)
arsenic poisoning resembles diphtheria in causing membranous colitis
hydragyrism-- chronic mercury poisoning
concussio mercuralis-- condition when patient becomes unable to dress,write or walk
maternal intake of hg in pregnancy leads to cerebral palsy in neonates
most poisonous salt is hgcl2( calomel) reduced to metallic mercury by sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate
treatment-- dimercaprol,,ca EDTA not used(inc nephrotoxicity)

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