Thursday, 4 July 2013

Exam points

HDI value ranges in 0 to 1.
*>0.8 high(developed country)
*0.5-0.799 developing country
*<0.5-- underdeveloped.
chloride levelsfr normal drinking water--0.5
GI outbreak--0.7
Post disaster--0.7
Swimming pool--1
Kill Cyclops--5

Fluorine levels
Optimum.--0.5 -0.8
Max permisible 1.5
Dental flurosis---1.5-3
skeletal flurosis---3-6
More thn 10 crippling flurosis
Haase’s rule-age in lunar months::
If Crown heel length is <25 cm, age in months = square root of length
If Crown heel length is >25 cm, age in months = length / 5

 Carabelli's cusp. This is variably expressed but, when present, is a projection that occurs on the lingual (tongue side) surface of the maxillar first molars. Rare among Asiatics but very widespread among Native Americans.
Quinacrine dihydrochloride is used for staining Y-chromosome
Acriflavin Schiff reagent is used for staining X—chromosome
 Davidson body (drumstick appearance) in neutrophil ' Gonadal biopsy (from testes or ovaries) is a confirmatory method of determining sex. Present in females and absent in males
 A person accused of criminal offence may be medically examined without his consent on the request of the police:: Section 53, CrPC
CRPC 54: Examination of arrested person by medical practitioner at the request of the arrested person.

 Negligence by Doctor: 4 D's
Duty bound
Direct causation

 Algor mortis is the process by which the body cools after death as a result of loss of heat to the surroundings. A NOMOGRAPH is a diagram that allows a complicated mathematical relationship to be solved simply with a ruler.
Conditions causing postmortem caloricity:
   in heat regulation – sunstroke, pontine haemorrhage
Increased heat production in muscles – tetanus, strychnine poisoning
Bacterial / viral activity – septicemia / infections Intense asphyxia
Colour of post mortem lividity::
Normal – Bluish pink which later turns into bluish purple
Carbon monoxide – Bright cherry red
Cyanide – Pink
Phosphorous – Dark brown
Chlorates,nitrates,aniline – Chocolate brown
Hydrogen sulphide – Bluish green
Opiates – Black
Putrefaction is delayed in poisoning due to Carbolic acid, Barbiturates, lead, Datura, Arsenic, Strychnine, Cyanide

faget sign( relative bradycardia) seen in first week
rose spots occur on lower abdomen in second week
widal test is negative In First week nd strongly positive in second week
complications like septicemia,perforation occur in third week
hepatospleenomegaly seen in most cases
typhoid fever has other names like slow fever,,gastric fever,,pythogenic fever
cftr gene implicated in cystic fibrosis provides protection against typhoid infection
treatment of choice-- third generation cephalosporins
best method of diagnosis-- bone marrow culture
mercury poisoning
Mnemonic--Black MEAT
Blue black lining of gums
mercuria lentis(Brown mercury deposits on lens)-- early feature
erethism( neuropsychiatric. Changes in form of shyness,irritability,tremors,loss of memory
acrodynia(pink disease-- pink,puffy,paraesthesia,peeling of skin)(all india-93)
tremors danburry/ hatter's shakes/ glass blower's shakes
Other features of mercury
shaking palsy( aiims97)
minimata ds occured by eating poisoned mercurial fishes,,an example of point epidemic( aiims)
acute mercury poisoning involves--pct(all india--96)
arsenic poisoning resembles diphtheria in causing membranous colitis
hydragyrism-- chronic mercury poisoning
concussio mercuralis-- condition when patient becomes unable to dress,write or walk
maternal intake of hg in pregnancy leads to cerebral palsy in neonates
most poisonous salt is hgcl2( calomel) reduced to metallic mercury by sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate
treatment-- dimercaprol,,ca EDTA not used(inc nephrotoxicity)
Burtonians lines are characteristic( stippled blue lines in gums of upper jaw dt lead sulphide)[all india--2007]
abdominal colic,constipation,anorexia,lethargy,irritability,pallor,ataxia and slurred speech are characteristic
punctate basophilia is characteristic of chronic lead poisoning( pgi 2003)
antidote-- BAL
wrist drop may be seen
encephalopathy is seen in children nd rare in adults

Ossification centers -  (CaSt Takes SaFe Cushion)
Ca        - Calcaneum - 5 months
St         - Sternum    - 6
Takes    - Talus        - 7
Sa         - Sacrum     - 8
Fe         - Femur       - 9
Cushion -Cuboid      -10
training period fr.dai ???
fr asha ??
1 month for dai.
Asha 23 days
fr female health worker ??
23 days asha
Anganwadi 4 months
Asha training 23 days.
Dai-30 days
Village health guide-200 hours over 3 months
Anganwadi worker 4 months

Organisation and their headquarters
1) UNO - New York        2)UNICEF - New York
3)UNESCO - Paris
4) WHO - Geneva
5)UNFPA - New York
6) ILO - Geneva
7) World Bank - Washington D.C.
8) International Committee of the Red Cross -
9)Food and Agricultural Organisation - Rome

All Out for Mosquitos
Flight range:
Anopheles 3-5km
Culex 11km
Aedes 100m
Blackfly 100miles
Mosquito 2-3wks
Housefly 15 d(s),20d(wintr)
Lice 30-50days
Tse tse 100 days
Ticks 1 yr
Lastly,the best one to learn
fleas when starved jump 4 inches and when fed 3 inches:-D""

erthema marginatum:-RF
erythema nodosum seen in RA

Day of appearance of rash in a febrile patient – Mnemonic

Mnemonic for Day of appearance of rash in a febrile patient is : Very Sick Person Must Take Double Tablets
Very – Varicella (day 1)
Sick – Scarlet fever (day 2)
Person – Pox – small pox (day 3)
Must – Measles (day 4)
Take – Typhus (day 5)
Double – Dengue (day 6)
Tablets – Typhoid (day

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