Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Exam points 1

The use of forceps during delivery puts the baby at risk of facial nerve damage, skull fractures, subdural hemorrhaging and cerebral palsy while mothers are at risk of lacerations, urinary tract infections, and rectum injuries

The Hawkins sign describes subchondral lucency of the talar dome that occurs secondary to subchondral atrophy 6-8 weeks after a talar neck fracture1

Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells. Rituximab destroys B cells and is therefore used to treat diseases which are characterized by excessive numbers of B cells, overactive B cells, or dysfunctional B cells. This includes many lymphomas, leukemias, transplant rejection, and autoimmune disorders.

Pre-emptive analgesia
is a treatment that is initiated before the surgical procedure in order to reduce this sensitization.
Owing to this 'protective' effect on the nociceptive system, pre-emptive analgesia has the potential to be more effective than a similar analgesic treatment initiated after surgery.
Theoretically, immediate postoperative pain may be reduced and the development of chronic pain
may be prevented.

Irrigation fluid must have neutral visual density so that the surgeon's view is not distorted. •. Most commonly used irrigants are glycine

45,X/46,XY mixed gonadal dysgenesis (45,X/46,XY MGD) is a disorder of sex development (DSD) associated with a numerical sex chromosome abnormality

The suprascapular artery (or transverse scapular artery) is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk.

The most common associated finding in horseshoe kidney is ureteropelvic junction obstruction, which occurs in up to 35% of cases and is often the cause of problems

The most common indication for vitrectomy - vitreous hemorrhage

A carbuncle is a deep-seated pyogenic infection of several contiguous hair follicles

FEMORAL NERVE. ORIGIN: Ventral rami of L2-4 nerves

Boundaries.—The popliteal fossa or space is a lozenge-shaped space, at the back of the knee-joint. Laterally it is bounded by the Biceps femoris above, and by the Plantaris and the lateral head of the Gastrocnemius below; medially it is limited by the Semitendinous and Semimembranosus above, and by the medial head of the Gastrocnemius below. The floor is formed by the popliteal surface of the femur, the oblique popliteal ligament of the knee-joint, the upper end of the tibia, and the fascia covering the Popliteus; the fossa is covered in by the fascia lata.   
Contents.—The popliteal fossa contains the popliteal vessels, the tibial and the common peroneal nerves, the termination of the small saphenous vein, the lower part of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, the articular branch from the obturator nerve, a few small lymph glands, and a considerable quantity of fat.

The line of Gennari (also called the "band" or "stria" of Gennari) is a band of myelinated axons which run parallel to the surface of the cerebral cortex on the banks of the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. This formation is visible to the naked eye and the reason the primate V1 is also referred to as "striate cortex."

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