Friday, 1 November 2013

Signs

Signs in Radiology
A Accordion sign 
Appearance of bowel that may be seen with pseudomembranous colitis.
Air crescent sign 
Appearance of cavitation that may be seen with invasive apergillosis (see also Monod sign).
Anteater's nose sign 
Sign of calcaneonavicular tarsal coalition.
Apple Core lesion 
Circumferential narrowing of the lumen secondary to colon cancer.
B Ball on tee sign 
Sign of papillary necrosis on IVU.
Banana sign 
Seen on antenatal US and refers to a banana-shaped configuration of the cerebellum. Associated with neural tube defects.
Bat wing appearance (chest) 
Classic chest radiography finding for pulmonary edema.
Bat wing appearance (neuro) 
Appearance of 4th ventricle that may be seen with Joubert syndrome.
Bergman's coiled catheter sign 
Sign of ureteral transitional cell carcinoma when a catheter coils in region of neoplasm (see also Goblet sign).
Bird's beak 
Narrowing of the esophagus in achalasia.
Bird's beak sign or bird of prey sign
Narrowing of the colon in cecal volvulus.
Blade of grass 
Paget disease.
Bone in bone sign 
Appearance of spine that may be seen osteopetrosis.
Boot-shaped Heart 
Appearance of heart that may be seen with tetralogy of Fallot.
Boxcar ventricles 
Appearance of frontal horns that may be seen in Huntington's disease.
Breast in a breast 
Term used to describe Fibroadenolipomas.
Bulging fissure sign 
Bulging of a pulmonary fissure. Most commonly associated with Klebsiella pneumonia.
Bullet carpal bones 
Appearance of carpal bones that may be seen with mucopolysaccharidoses.
Butterfly vertebrae 
Results from failure of fusion of the lateral halves of the vertebral body because of persistent notochondal tissue between them.
C C sign 
Sign of talocalcaneal tarsal coalition.
Cake kidney 
All renal tissue is fused into one pelvic mass and gives rise to two separate ureters which enter the bladder in normal relationship.
Canoe paddle ribs
 :Appearance of ribs that may be seen with mucopolysaccharidoses.
Celery stalking 
Irregular appearance of metaphyses in patients with rubella. Also used to describe metaphyses in patients with osteopathia striata.
Central dot sign 
Sign of Caroli's disease.
Champagne sign 
Specific but not commonly seen ultrasound finding for emphysematous cholecystitis.
Cloverleaf skull 
Appreance of the skull that may be seen with thanatophoric dysplasia.
Cluster of grapes 
Appearance that may be seen with pneumatosis cystoides coli.
Cobra head sign 
Dilatation of the distal ureter which may be seen in patients with ureteroceles.
Coffee bean sign 
Sigmoid volvulus.
Collar sign 
Sign of diaphragmatic rupture.
Comet sign 
Sign to differential a phlebolith from a ureteral stone. Calcified phlebolith represents the comet nucleus and the adjacent, tapering, noncalcified portion of the vein is the comet tail (also see soft-tissue rim sign).
Comet tail sign 
Produced by the distortion of vessels and bronchi that lead to an adjacent area of round atelectasis.
Cord sign
Sign of intracranial dural sinus thrombosis.
Corkscrew collaterals 
Appearance of collaterals that may be seen in patients with Buerger disease.
Corkscrew sign 
Upper GI series sign of midgut volvulus.
Corduroy appearance 
Appearance of thickening trabeculations seen in intraosseous hemangiomas of the spine. See also polka-dot pattern.
Crazy-paving sign 
Nonspecific appearance consisting of linear network or reticular pattern with areas of ground-glass opacification. Classically associated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.
Crossover sign 
Anterior acetabular rim is projected laterally relative to the same point of the posterior rim in the superolateral aspect of the acetabulum. See with pincer type femoroacetabular impingement.
Cyclops lesion 
May occur status post anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
D David Letterman sign 
:Sign of scapholunate ligament disruption (also see Terry Thomas sign).
Dense vessel sign 
Sign of cerebrovascular accident that represent thrombus in the middle cerebral artery.
Dependent viscera sign 
Sign of diaphragmatic rupture (viscera falls to a dependent position).
Dot and dash pattern 
Sacral insufficiency fracture.
Double bleb sign
Appearance of amnion and yolk sac at 5-6 weeks. Embryo lies between amnion and yolk sac
Double bubble sign 
Sign of duodenal atresia and other forms of duodenal obstruction.
Double decidua sign 
Sign of early normal intrauterine gestation.
Double density sign (cardiac) 
Sign of left atrial enlargement when right side of the left atrium pushes into the adjacent lung.
Double density sign (Nucs) 
Pattern of uptake that may be seen on bone scans in patients with osteoid osteomas.
Double duct sign 
Simultaneous dilatation of the common bile and pancreatic ducts that is generally caused by a tumor in the pancreatic head.
Double PCL sign 
MRI sign of a bucket-handle meniscal tear.
Double track sign 
:Appearance of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis that may be seen on upper GI series.
Draped aorta sign 
Sign of contained rupture of an abdominal aoric aneurysm.
Drooping lily sign 
Inferolateral displacement of the opacified lower pole moiety in a duplex kidney from an obstructed (unopacified) upper pole moeity.
E Egg on a string 
Appearance of the heart that may be seen with transposition of great arteries.
Empty delta sign 
Sign of intracranial dural sinus thrombosis.
Epicardial fat pad sign 
Sign of a pericardial effusion.
Eye of the tiger sign 
low signal intensity circumscribing the globus pallidus in patients with Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome.
F Faceless kidney 
Appearance of kidney secondary to any process that obliterates renal sinus (i.e. lymphoma, transitional cell carcinoma).
Fallen fragment sign 
Sign of a pathologic fracture seen with unicameral bone cysts.
Feeding vessel sign 
Sign of pulmonary septic emboli.
Flame shaped (Breast)
Gynecomastia.
Flame shaped (MSK)
Paget disease.
Fat halo sign 
Seen in various diseases of the bowel in which fatty infiltration of the submucosa is present.
Fat ring sign 
Preservation of the perivascular fat around the mesenteric vessels that may be seen with mesenteric panniculitis.
Flat tire sign 
Sign of a ruptured globe.
Flat waist sign 
Appearance of left heart border that may be seen with left lower lobe atelectasis.
Figure 3 sign 
Appearance of the aorta that may be seen in patients with coarctation of the aorta.
Figure of eight 
Appearance of the brain in pachygyria.
Finger in glove sign 
Sign of mucous plugging seen with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
Fish vertebrae. 
Description of shape of vertebral bodies that may be seen in patients with sickle cell disease. See also: H-shaped vertebral bodies.
Football sign 
Sign of pneumoperitoneum seen on supine radiographs.
G Gastrointestinal string sign
Sign of Crohn disease.
Goblet sign 
Sign of ureteral transitional cell carcinoma that may be seen on retrograde or intravenous urography (see also Bergman's coiled catheter sign).
Gull wing appearance 
Appearance of erosions that may occur in patients with erosive osteoarthritis.
H H-shaped vertebral bodies 
Shape of vertebral bodies that may be seen in patients with sickle cell disease. See also: Fish vertebrae.
Halo sign 
Ground-glass attenuation surrounding a pulmonary nodule or mass on CT images. Represents hemorrhage and is highly suggestive of Aspergillus.
Hampton's hump 
Triangular opacity secondary to infarction in the periphery of the lung distal to a pulmonary embolism.
Head cheese sign 
Sign of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Hidebound sign 
On small bowel series, crowding of folds in dilated loops of small bowel may be seen in patients with scleroderma.
High-attenuating crescent sign 
Sign of impending abdominal aoric aneurysm rupture.
Hole within a hole 
Appearance that may be seen when eosinophilic granuloma involves the skull.
Holly leaf appearance 
Chest radiograph finding that may be seen with asbestos pleural plaques.
Honda sign 
Sacral insufficiency fracture.
Hot cross bun sign 
May be seen on axial T2 weighted images of the pons in multiple system atrophy.
Hot nose sign 
Sign that may be observed on brain flow scans in patients with brain death.
Hourglass appearance 
MRI appearance that may be seen with concentric cystic adventitial disease.
I Interstitial line sign
Sign that may be seen with an interstitial ectopic pregnancy.
Inverted Napoleon's hat sign 
Sign of severe spondylolisthesis at the lumbosacral junction.
Ivory vertebra sign 
Increase in opacity of a vertebral body that retains its size and contours, with no change in the opacity and size of adjacent intervertebral disks.
J Juxtaphrenic peak sign 
Tenting of the diaphragm that may be seen with right upper lobe atelectasis.
K Keyhole sign 
US appearance that may be seen with posterior urethral valves.
L Lace like 
Pattern that may be seen with sarcoid arthropathy.
Lace-like pattern 
Ultrasound appearance of hemorrhagic ovarian cysts.
Lacunar skull 
Appearance of skull that may be seen in infants with Chiari II malformation.
Lambda sign
On a Gallium-67 citrate scan, uptake in the hilar and paratracheal lymph nodes gives the appearance of a lambda. This is seen in sarcoidosis.
Lead pipe 
Narrowing of colon with loss of haustra that may be seen in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Linguine sign 
MRI sign that may be seen in patients with intracapsular breast implant rupture.
Lobster claw sign 
Sign of papillary necrosis on IVU.
Lollipop 
Appearance of diverticula that may been seen on HSG in patients with adenomyosis.
Luftsichel sign 
"Air cresent". Sign that may be seen with left upper lobe atelectasis.
M Mark Morton sign 
Throckmorton's sign with a small penis.
Mercedes Benz sign 
Appearance of gas within gallstones.
Moulage sign 
Effaced loop of bowel that may be seen on a small bowel series in sprue.
Molar tooth sign (GU)
Perivesicular extravasation of contrast on CT cystogram in a patient with extraperitoneal bladder rupture.
Molar tooth sign (Neuro)
Enlarged and horizontally directed tubular structure on each side of the midline emerging from the midbrain in patients with Joubert syndrome.
Monod sign 
Air surrounding an aspergilloma (Also see air crescent sign).
Mount Fuji sign 
CT sign of tension pneumocephalus.

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