Wednesday, 30 October 2013

MNEMONICS and imp points for NEET


Strawberry nose : Rhinophyma( form
of rosasea)
Strawberry tongue: Kawasaki
disease,Scarlet fever
Strawberry vagina: Trichomonas
Strawberry gingiva: Wegeners
Strawberry mucosa: hypertrophic
rhinitis
Strawberry Hemangiomas: superficial
hemangiomas
Wooden chest: Alfentanyl
Wooden legs: Scurvey
Woody nose : Rhynophymoma (k/a
potato tumor)
Hebra nose: Rhinoscleroma
Hebra triangle: Scabies
criterias & classifications
1.Halls criteria : Downs syndrome
2.Dukes criteria: Endocarditis/Heart
failure
3.Butchers criteria :mesothelioma
4.Ann Arbours classifiacation
:Hodgki.s lymphoma
5.Bismuth classification: tumors of
hepatic ductal system
6.Nazers Index: Wilsons disz
7.Pagets Index : Abruptio placentae
8.Quetlet index: BMI -wt in kg/ht in
meter square
9.Ponderial Index: ht in cm/cube root
of body wt in kgs
10.Brocas index : Ht in cms-100
11.Corpulence index : Actual wt/
desired wt
12Milans crjteria: for liver transplant
in HCC
13.Mayers n cottons grading system:
Subglottic stenosis
14.Spaldings criteria: abdominal
pregnancy
15.GCS/Ransons criteria/APACHE
score: Pancreatitis
16.Ennekings staging : Bone tumors
17.Mc Donald's criteria: Multiple
Sclerosis
18.Epworths criteria : Sleep apnea
19.Framminghams criteria/Boston's
criteria: CHF
20.Durie salmon system of staging:
Multiple myeloma
21.Lights criteria: pleural effusion
22.GOLD's criteria :COPD
23.OKUDA staging : HCC
24.Child's Turcott pug score/MELD/
PELD- Cirrhosis of liver
25.Mantrles criteria/Alvarado score:
Appendicitis
26.Evan's stagng: Neuroblastoma
27.FAB: Leukemias
28.Glisson's staging: Prostrate
29.Robson's staging : RCC
30.NADA's criteria: ASD assesment of
child for heart disz
31.Rye classification: Hodgkins
lymphoma
32.Chang staging: Medulloblastoma
33.Jackson's ataging :Penile
Carcinoma
34.Seddons classification: Nerve
injury n regeneration
35.Larren's classification:Gastric Ca
36.Neer's classification:
supracondylar# femur
37.Gartland's classification:
Supracondylar # Humerus
38.Amsel's criteria: bacterial
vaginosis
39.Mallampati scoring: for intubation
40.Forrest classification: peptic ulcer
bleed
41.Hess & Hunt Scale: subarachnoid
hemorrhage
42.Duke staging : colon cancer
43.Rotterdam's criteria : PCOS
44.LEEFORDT's classification : facial #
45.wells criteria: pulmonary embolism
46.Rule of wallace/Rule of 9: Burns
47.Mansons classification: Radial
head #
48.Stanford classifi ation: Aortic
dissection
49.Rockall scoring: adverse out come
after GI bleed
50.Glasgow Blatchford score : UGI
bleed for medical intervention
51.Waterlows classification:
Malnutrition in children
Flow cytometry markers :
CD1a, S-100, CD-207(Langherin)-
Langerhan cell histiocytosis
CD 2 3 4 5 7 8- T-cell markers,CD3 is
pan T cell marker
CD10 (aka CALLA antigen) : Early pre
B marker,immature B cell marker
CD 11c, 25, 103, 123 : Hairy cell
lukemia (CD 123 Most specific)
CD 13,33,117, MPO: Myeloid series
marker-AML
CD 14,64: Monocyte marker (AML-M4
M5)
CD 15 : RS cell,Neutrophils
CD 15,30 : RS Cell
CD 16,56: NK Cell
CD 19,20,21,22 : B Cell markers, CD 19
is pan B cell marker
CD 23+,CD 5+ : CLL/SLL
CD 23-,CD 5+ : Mantle cell lymphoma
CD 30(only) aka Ki-antigen :
Anaplastic Large cell lymphoma
CD 31: Endothelial cell marker
(positive in angiosarcomas)
CD 34: Stem cell (also positive in
angiosarcomas)
CD 41,61: Megakaryocyte,platelet
marker,positive in AML-M7
CD 45 : On all leukocytes(except RS
cell)
CD 45 RO: Memory cell
CD 45RA/RB: Naive B/T Cell
CD 55(DAF), CD 59(MIRL) : Absent in
PNH
CD 68,S-100+ :Histiocyte marker(+ in
malignant fibrous histiocytosis)
CD 95/FAS ligand: apoptosis marker
(extrinsic pathway)
CD 99/MIC-2 : Ewings sarcoma
CD 103: Hairy cell
CD 117 :GIST,Mastocytosis,AML (117
is present on mast cells also)
CD 123: New antibody in Hairy cell
leukemia
CD 133:Glioma
CD 207(Langherin): LCH
CD 235(Glycophorin): AML-M6
S-100, HMB 45 : Melanoma
S-100 : Cartilagenous tumor marker
MCC of death in PNH : Thrombosis
MCC of death in polycythemia vera :
Pulmonary thromboembolism
MCC of death in klienfelters:
Infections
MCC of death in Downs : Cardiac
defects
MCC of death in Amyloidosis: Renal
failure
MCC of death in cirrhosis: HRS
some gene locations and inherited
mutations causing syndromes
APC gene: 5q (colon Ca & FAP)
(gene for blood group is located on -
Chromosome 9)
P16 gene: 9p (Malignant melanoma)
PTEN : 10q (mutation causes COWDEN
syndrome
WT1 : 11p (Wilms tumor)
Rb : 13q (Retinoblastoma
,Osteosarcoma)
NF-1 : 17q
BRCA 1: 17q (male n female breast
Ca)
BRCA 2: 13q (exclusively male breast
Ca)
P53 : 17p (Li fraumeni syndrome)
NF 2 : 22 q (Acoustic
Shwannomas,Meningiomas)
Grieff stages death
Denial
Anger
Bargaining
Depression
Acceptance
hypercacemia causing tumors-ROSA
R RCC
O Ovarian Ca
S Squamous cell lung Ca
A Adult T cell leukemias/lymphomas
Acanthosis Nigricans characteristically
seen in GLU
G Gastric Ca
Lung Ca
Uterine Ca
Acrodermatitis enteroathica -DAD
D Dermatitis
A Alopecia
D diarrhea
Sister mary joseph nodules r seen in
SCOP
S Stomach cancer
C-Colln Ca (large)
O-Ovarian Ca
P-Pancreatic Ca
Drugs metabolized by P-Glycolization
COLD"
C Cyclosporine
O Oseltamavir
L Loperamide
D Digoxin
KAN(ear) are ototoxic
K Kanamycin
A Amikacin
N Neomycin
Clavipectoral fascia piercing
structures ACL
A Acromio thoracic artery
C Cephalic vein
L Lateral pectoral nerve
C causes neutropenia
Clozapine
Captopril
Clopidogrel
Chlorpropamide
Carbimazole
BAP in Nazer Index( parameters
checked in Nazer index for Wilsons
B Bilirubin
A AST(not albumin*)
P PT
Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types Hi
Yield [ID 1707]
¬ Use your five fingers:
1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1
vessel)
2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the
Great Arteries (2 vessels transposed)
3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri)
4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot
(4=Tetra)
5 fingers up: Total Anomalous
Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words)
Urease positive organisms
PUNCH:
Proteus (leads to alkaline urine)
Ureaplasma (renal calculi)
Nocardia
Cryptoccocus (the fungus)
Helicobacter pylori
S1,2 = ankle jerk
L3,4 = knee jerk
C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis
C7,8 = triceps:
Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery
relation [ID 56]
"Water under the bridge":
The ureters (which carry water), are
posterior to the ovarian/testicular
artery.
¬ Clinically important, since a
common surgical error is to cut ureter
instead of ovarian artery when
removing uterus.
Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface
anatomy [ID 54]
"1,3,5,7,9,11":
Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3
inches x 5 inches.
Weight is 7 ounces.
It underlies ribs 9 through 11.
Thoracic duct: relation to azygous
vein and esophagus [ID 26]
"The duck between 2 gooses":
Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2
gooses, azygous and esophagus.
Bicipital groove: attachments of
muscles near it [ID 27]
"The lady between two majors":
Teres major attaches to medial lip of
groove.
Pectoralis major to lateral lip of
groove.
Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove,
between the 2 majors.
Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal
vs. palmar in hand [ID 293]
"PAd and DAb":
The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal
Abduct.
¬ Use your hand to dab with a pad.
Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg
Second letter rule for inversion/
eversion:
¬ Eversion muscles:
pErineus longus
pErineus brevis
pErineus terius
¬ Inversion muscles:
tIbialis anterior
tIbialis posterior
Carotid sheath contents [ID 669]
"I See 10 CC's in the IV":
I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid arter
cd markers in pathology

CD1a, CD207: Langerhan cell
histiocytosis cells
CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD8: T
cells
CD10: Early pre-B cells (immature B
cells)
CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123: Hairy
cell leukemia cells
CD13, CD33, CD117: Myeloid cells
CD14, CD64: Monocytic cells (positive
in AML-M4 and AML-M5)
CD15: Reed-Sternberg cells,
neutrophils
CD16, CD56: Natural killer cells
CD19, CD20, CD21, CD22 : B cells
CD23 and CD5 : Chronic lymphocytic
leukemia/small lymphocytic
lymphoma
CD23 negative and CD5 positive:
Mantle cell lymphoma cells
CD30 and CD15: Reed-Sternberg
cells
CD30 positive and CD15 negative:
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells
CD31: Endothelial cells (positive in
angiosarcoma)
CD33: Myeloid cells and precursors
CD34: Stem cells (also positive in
angiosarcoma)
CD41, CD61: Megakaryocytes and
platelets (positive in AML-M7)
CD45 : All leukocytes (except Reed-
Sternberg cells!)
CD45 RO: Memory T cells
CD45 RA: Naive T cells
CD68: Histiocytes (positive in
malignant fibrous histiocytosis)
CD99: Ewings sarcoma cells
CD117: Gastrointestinal stromal
tumor (GIST) cells, mast cells
(positive in mastocytosis), myeloid
cells
Organs outside blood brain barrier
( Marble S O A P)

Median eminence
Subfornicial organ
Organum vasculosum lamina terminalis
Area postrema
Posterior pituitary
Granulomatous vasculitis
(Get The World Cup)

Gaint cell arteritis

Takayasu

Wegener Granulomatosis

Churg strass syndrome
Both Granulomatous n Necrotisin vasculitis

Wegener Granulomatosis

Churg strass syndrome
most radiosensitive stage of cell cycle - G2M
most radio ressistant stage of cell cycle -late S
most chemosensitive stage of cell cycle- S
most variable stage of cell cycle -G1
Some imp. Ocular Pathognomonics
1. Arlt's Line --> Pathognomonic of a healed
Trachoma.
2. Bone spicule pigmentation --> Retinitis
pigmentosa.
3. Busaca Nodules --> Granulomatous Anterior
uveitis.
4. Bitot's spots --> a conjunctival triangular
white
patches, pathognomonic of Dry eye.
5. Black sunburst ---> RPE Hyperplasia in Sickle
Cell
Retinopathy.
6. Bull's Eye Maculopathy --> Chloroquine
toxicity, HydroxyChloroquine toxicity, Cone
dystrophy & Batten Mayou syndrome.
7. Cobble stone papillae --> Spring catarrh.
8. Cornea verticillata --> Amiodarone side
effect .Other Causes ---> chloroquine,Fabry's
disease,Indomethacin.
9. Cherry red macula --> CRAO
10. Chocked disc --> Papilloedema.
11. Candlewax drippings (Retinochoroidal
exudate) --> sarcoid periphlebitis (Ocular
Sarcoidosis).
12. Egg yolk appearance --> Vitelliform macular
dystrophy (Best disease).
13. Eclipse sign --> Shallow Anterior chamber
Most common post op complication of
ILEOSTOMY(EARLY)-Obstruction
ILEOSTOMY(LATE)-Parastomal hernia
COLOSTOMY(EARLY)-Skin irritation and necrosis
COLOSTOMY(LATE)-Parastomal hernia
Correct me if wrong....
Mechanism of resistance-Mutation in tb , leprosy
Conjugation for multiple drug resistance
Transduction for staphylococcus
Soap bubble appearance
1.xray bone-gct
2.abd xray newborn-meconium ileus
3.mri brain-cryptococal meningitis
4.usg-muticystic dysplastic kidney
Rickets all seen , cranitabes , alkaline phosphate , Bow leg ( genu valgum-outelward curve of long bones)     (except- increase acid phosphate)                             baby starts speaking sentance of few words - 2yrs                                        MCC of death in PDA - cardiac failure                     ASD pt with murmur similat to MR & left axis deviation of 40 • is having? Floppy mitral valve                                         first sign of puberty in females -Thelarche     ( males - testicular enlargement)                          Generalized 3-4 hz spike &slow wave complexes on EEG seen in? Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy                               3 year old child with recurrent stridor , what is the most probable  diagnosis? Laryngotrracheo-bronchitis                                 MC gasrltrointestinal malignancy of childhood ? Lymphoma                      first set of milk teeth appear at what age? 6 months           true about gomez classification of malnutrition- weight is only parameter 12/10 (doubtful)
Chronic granulomatous disease :

NADPH oxidase defect

Deficiet of free radicals .
heterogenous disorders

xlinked defect of gp91phox

recurrent lung infection with catalase positive organisms
Hla and diseases

B27 - ankylosin spondylitis . Reiters syndrome. Reactive arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis.

Dr2 -      narcolepsy . Goodpasture syndrome.
Multiple sclerosis

Dr3-
  dermatitis herpetiformis
Chronic active hepatitis
Adrenal insufficiency
Graves disease
dr4-
Pemphigus vulgaris
Rheumatoid arthritis
Serology to diff hdv and hbv - coinfection and superinfection

- Superinfection
igm anti hdv +
Igm anti hbcag -

-Coinfection
Igm anti hdv +
Igm anti hbcag +
Cladribide-doc 4 hairycel leak

ABVD-ADIAMYCIN,blomycin,vincistin,dacarbazin 4 hogk lymph

Imatimib mesyl-cml

In ALL CNS prophy-intrathecal methotrexat or cytarabin

All transretinoc acid,arsenic oxide 4 Ac promy leuk

Mc mutant in beta thalas-intron1
Imatinib also for gist

Sorafenib for hcc

Suratinib Fr imatinib resistant GIST

Courtesy Tej n sunil
Malaria Progrrames

National Malarial Control Programme-1953

National Malarial Eradication Programme-1958

Urban Malarial Scheme-1971

Enhanced Malarial Control Project(Worlbank Supported)-1997

National Antimalarial Programme-1999

NVBDCP-2003-04(6dz)
Malaria
Filaria
Dengue
Kala Azar
Japanese Encephalitis
Chickengunya Fever
"bracket"calcification on skul mri?
Corpus callosum lipoma

Cork screw type glands seen in
Late secretry

tooth paste like stool is found in?
Hirshprung disease
Cranial nerves – facts

CN which is the smallest -- oTrochlear n.
CN which enters cerebrum directly - olfactory nerve

CN with longest intracranial (subarachnoid) course -- trochlear n
CN which emerges posterior to brain stem- trochlear nerve
CN with dorsal exit -- trochlear n.
CN which is the largest and thickest -- trigeminal n.
CN which is largest -- trigeminal nerve
CN with longest extracranial course --vagus n.
CN having longest intraosseous course -- facial nerve
CN with longest ( intradural )course - abducent nerve
CN passing through cavernous sinus -- abducent nerve
CN involved in raised intracranial tension -- abducent nerve
Abducent nerve has the longest intra-cranial INTRADURAL course!!
Hemoglobin
Deletions:
reduced amount-alpha thalass

Defective mRNAprocessing:reduced amount-beta thal

Point mutation:abn structure-sickle cell
t(x : 17 ) - alveolar soft part tumour

t(x: 18 ) - synovial sarcoma

t(11:14) - mantle cell lymphoma

t(14:18) - follicular cell lymphoma

t(11:18) - maltoma , extranodal marginal zone lymp.

t(15:17) , t (8:21) - AML M3

t(14:4) ,t(14:11) ,t(14:6) , t(14:16) - multiple myeloma

t(8:14) .t(2:8) ,t(8:22) - burkitt's lymphoma

t(2:5) - anaplastic large cell lymphoma

t(3q:v) - diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (v-variable)

t(2:13) - alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

 t(2:16) - myxoid liposarcoma

t(11:22) - pnet , askins tumour( ewings)

t(3:8) - renal adenocarcinoma , mixed parotid tumour

t(6:14) - cystadeno carcinoma of ovary

t(10:17) - papillary thyroid carcinoma

t(x:1) - peadiatric papillary RCC

 t(9:22) - philadelphia chromosome

t(12:21) - ALL ( CBF alpha , ETV6)

schizophrenia t(1:11)

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