Sunday, 29 September 2013


Bellini’s duct - Straight collecting tubules of the kidney.
Bartholin’s duct - the major duct of the sublingual gland.
Cystic duct - excretory duct of gall bladder.
Gartner’s duct - a remnant of Wolffian duct.
Mullerian duct - bilateral ducts in the embryo that form the uterus, vagina and fallopian tubes.
Wirsung’s duct - pancreatic duct.
Santorini’s duct - accessory pancreatic duct.
Wharton’s duct - duct of submandibular gland.
Vitelline duct - the narrow duct in the embryo that connects the yolk sac with the intestine.
Ducts of Rivinus - 5 to 15 ducts that drain the posterior portion of the sublingual gland.
Stensen’s duct - parotid duct.
Pecquet’s duct - Thoracic duct.
Hensen’s duct - ductus reunions.
Hoffman’s duct - pancreatic duct or
Wirsung’s duct.
Bernard’s duct - Accessory
pancreatic duct or Santorini’s duct

Monday, 23 September 2013

Blood Products

whole Blood-2 - 6°C-----28 - 35 days
Red Cells in Additive-----2 - 6°C--42 days
Platelet Concentrate--20 - 24°C under constant agitation--5 days

Frozen Plasma-----Below30°C---365 days
Cryoprecipitate-----Below 30°C------365 days

Clinical uses of thalidomide 

AIDS related aphthous ulcer
AIDS related wasting syndrome
AIDS related kaposi's sarcoma
Multiple myloma
Prevention of GVHD after transplantation
Ankylosing spondylitis
Crohn's disease
Behcet's syndrome
Erthema nodosum leprosum
Skin manifestation of SLE

Sunday, 22 September 2013

list of first organ transplantation:::

cornea:: edward zim(1906)

kidney ::: lawler(1950)

liver ::: starzl(1961)

lung and autologus kidney::: hardy(1963)

pancreas::: lilehi

heart ::: bernard

Friday, 20 September 2013


• Cholestrol+pigment+epithelial debris etc
• multiple small multifaceted

• Single usually
• radiolucent if pure cholestrol-so only usg can detec t it
• at times along with pigments

• Calcium bilirubinate
• multiple black stones

Tuesday, 10 September 2013

Salter Harris fractures:

 Type 1 - through growth plate only; ex: slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
Type 2 - through growth plate and metaphysis.
Type 3 - through growth plate and epiphysis.
Type 4 - through growth plate and both metaphysis and epiphysis.
Type 5 - compression deformity.

Saturday, 7 September 2013

Special Muscles

Boxer's muscle - serratus anterior

Muscle of marriage - medial rectus

Muscle of divorce - lateral rectus

Muscle of honeymoon - sartorius

Swimming muscle - pronator quadratus

Climbing muscle- latissimus dorsi

Muscle of rape/anti rape - gracillis

Tailor muscle - sartorius

Red muscle - postural muscle

White muscle- extra occular muscle

Spurt muscle - biceps

Shunt muscle - brachioradialis


Alkaptonuria Triad: Ochronotic arthritis, Ochronotic pigmentation, Urine darkens on standing
Anderson Triad
Bronchiectasis, Cystic
fibrosis, Vitamin A deficiency

Beck's Triad Muffled heart sound, Distended neck veins, Hypotension
Cardiac tamponade

Charcot's cholangitis triad Pain, fever, jaundice Ascending cholangitis

Charcot's neurologic triad scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus
Multiple sclerosis

Congestive Heart Failure Triad
Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tender hepatomegaly Congestive Heart Failure

Cushing's Triad of Increased Intracranial Pressure Bradycardia, Bradypnea, Hypertension head

Dieulafoy's triad hyperesthesia of the skin, exquisite tenderness and guarding over McBurney's point Acute appendicitis

Fanconi Syndrome Triad
Aminoaciduria, Proteinuria, Phosphaturia Fanconi Syndrome
Female athlete triad eating disorders, amenorrhoea, decreased bone mineral density

Gradenigos Triad Sixth cranial n.Palsy, Persistent ear discharge, Deep seated retro orbital pain Gradenigos Syndrome

Hemobilia - Triad (Triad of Sandblom)
Malena, Obstructive jaundice, Biliary colic

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Triad
Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Renal failure

Hutchinson’s Triad Hutchison's teeth,
Interstitial keratitis, Nerve deafness, Congenital syphilis

Kartagener’s Syndrome Triad 
Triad of bronchiectasis, Recurrent sinusitis, and, Situs inversus, Kartagener’s Syndrome

Meckler's triad :vomiting, pain and subcutaneous emphysema Boerhaave syndrome

O’ Donoghue Triad Twisting force in a weight bearing knee joint causes
injury to Medial collateral ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament, Medial meniscus

Saint's Triad: Gall stones, Diverticulosis, Hiatus hernia

Samter's Triad (also known as Acetylsalicylic acid triad or Widal's triad or Francis' triad or Aspirin triad)
Aspirin sensitivity, Nasal polyps, Asthma Aspirin-induced asthma
Tetany in Children - Triad Stridor, Carpopedal spasm, Convulsions Tetany

Triad of Albinism Black locks, Occulo- cutaneous Albinism, Deafness of sensorineural type Albinism

Triad of Alports Syndrome
Sensorineural deafness, Progressive renal failure, Ocular anomalies
Alports Syndrome

Triad of Behcet's Syndromez: Recurrent oral ulcers, Genital ulcers, Iridocyclitis
Behcet's Syndrome

Triad of Causes of  Biotin Deficiency :Glossitis, Alopecia, Dermatitis

Triad of  Hypernephroma Pain, hematuria, renal mass , Hypernephroma

Triad of Kwashiorkar Growth retardation, Mental changes, Edema

Triple Test (for diagnosis of downs syndrome) Estimation of hcg, Estriol,
and AFP

Trotter's Triad :Conductive deafness, Immobility of homolateral soft palate, Trigeminal neuralgia

Virchow's triad :Stasis, Hypercoagulability, Vessel injury Venous thrombosis

Whipple's Triad : Hypoglycaemia during attacks, S.glucose 10%, Hypergammaglobulinemia, Lytic bone lesions Insulinoma

Friday, 6 September 2013


Giordano-Giovannetti diet: CRF
Feingold diet:: ADHD
Ketogenic diet:: epilepsy
Swank Diet::multiple sclerosis
DASH diet:: hypertension
Atkins diet:: obesity
Dukan Diet:: obesity
Ornish diet:: obesity
Zone diet:: obesity
Pritkin diet:: obesity
Craig diet:: obesity
Okinawa diet ::  obesity
Gerson diet:: cancer

Monday, 2 September 2013

1.heart failure cells.stained with-Prussian blue
2.cigar bodies- sporotrichosis
3.galantamine is used in- Alzheimer's disease
4. size of particle for aerosol therapy- 2-5 micron
5.marbling is d/t veins becoming visible d/t decomposition of blood
6.cyclical trend is d/t - herd immunity
7.dysphagia lusoria is caused by - Abberent Rt. Subclavian artery
8.volume of eyeball is 6.5 ml
9.DOC for African trypansomiasis - Nifurtimox
10. poor prognosis in Maddrey's index is above - 32
11. endoscope wash with dirty water is a/w M.chelonae
12. number of follicles in female newborn is - 1 million
13. retic count in newborn is - 2.5-6%
14.substance common in skin,hair and nails - keratin
15. half life of tritium - 12 years

Sunday, 1 September 2013


Smallest - olfactory
Thinnest- trochlear
Largest n thickest- trigeminal
Longest intracranial(75mm)- trochlear
Longest extracranial- vagus
longest intraosseous-facial
Involve in raised ict- abducent