Wednesday, 31 July 2013

Most common

1. Most common aortic branch involved in Takayasu arteritis : Left subclavian
2. Most common cause of respiratory distress in newborn : Transient tachypnea of the newborn
3. Most common location to see Asbestosis sequale : Posterior lower lobes.
4. Most common karyotype / chromosomal abnormality in USA : Down’s syndrome
5. Most common osseous lymphoma, primary and secondary : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
6. Most common primary malignant orbital tumor in childhood : Rhabdomyosarcoma
7. Most common type of fluid collection in scrotum : Hydrocele
8. Most common type of liposarcoma to affect children : Myxoid liposarcoma
9. Most common abdominal emergency of early childhood : Intussusception.
10. Most common acetabular fracture : Posterior acetabulum.
11. Most common affected bowel segment in TB : Ileocecal area.
12. Most common affected joint in gout : First MTP.
13. Most common AIDS-related neoplasm : Kaposi Sarcoma
14. Most common allergic aspergillosis syndrome : Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.
15. Most common anatomic variant of pancreas : Pancreas divisum
16. Most common anomalous course of RCA : Interarterial
17. Most common appearance of Legionella at the peak of the disease : Bilateral airspace consolidation.
18. Most common assoc. w/ Fx of great toe distal phalanx with physeal involvement :Osteomyelitis.
19. Most common associated anomaly with coarctation : Bicuspid valve.
20. Most common association of PAPVR : Sinus venosus type ASD.
21. Most common association with small left colon syndrome : Maternal DM
22. Most common bacterial cause of mesenteric adenitis : Yersinia enterocolitica.
23. Most common benign cardiac rhythm abnormality : PAC
24. Most common benign cartilage-containing tumor : Osteochondroma
25. Most common benign growth of the skeleton : Osteochondroma
26. Most common benign hepatic lesion : Hemangioma
27. Most common benign hepatic tumor during fist 6 mo. of life : Infantile Hemangioendothelioma
28. Most common benign intraconal tumor of the orbit in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.
29. Most common benign masses caused by asbestos exposure : Atelectatic Asbestos Pseudotumor
30. Most common benign mesenchymal tumor of kidney : AML
31. Most common benign mucosal tumor of the esophagus : Papilloma
32. Most common benign nasopharyngeal tumor : Juvenile angiofibroma.
33. Most common benign orbital tumor in childhood : Dermoid Cyst of Orbit
34. Most common benign ovarian neoplasm in young and middle-aged women (<45 years) :Mature teratoma
35. Most common benign radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : Osteochondroma
36. Most common benign rib lesion in an adult : Fibrous dysplasia.
37. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of the foot : Plantar fibromatosis
38. Most common benign soft-tissue tumor of vascular origin : Hemangioma
39. Most common benign solid tumor in women of childbearing age : Fibroadenoma
40. Most common benign testicular mass : Simple cyst
41. Most common benign tumor of spleen : Hemangioma
42. Most common benign tumor of the larynx : Squamous papilloma
43. Most common benign tumor of the lung : Hamartoma
44. Most common benign tumor of the small bowel : GIST
45. Most common benign vascular gastric tumor : Glomus tumor of stomach.
46. Most common bilateral testicular tumor : Lymphoma
47. Most common biliary complication s/p lap. cholecystectomy : Bile duct leak from cystic duct stump.
48. Most common biliary complication s/p liver transplantation : Obstruction/stenosis at anastomosis.
49. Most common bladder neoplasm in children younger than 10 years : Rhabdomyosarcoma
50. Most common bone to develop an osteochondroma : Femur (tibia second most common)
51. Most common brain anomaly on prenatal sonograms : Isolated Mild Ventriculomegaly
52. Most common breast tumor under age 25 years : Fibroadenoma
53. Most common cardiac manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematous : Pericarditis
54. Most common cardiac tumor in children : Rhabdomyoma.
55. Most common cardiac valvular tumor : Papillary fibroelastoma
56. Most common carpal dislocation : Transscaphoid perilunate dislocation.
57. Most common causative organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in adults : Strep. pneumoniae
58. Most common causative organism of neonatal pyogenic meningitis : E. coli
59. Most common cause for failure of dialysis graft : Fibrointimal hyperplasia : venous outflow stenosis.
60. Most common cause for late failure in lung transplant patient : Bronchiolitis obliterans
61. Most common cause for pulmonary edema : Left-sided heart disease
62. Most common cause non iatrogenic cause of small bowel obstruction : Hernia
63. Most common cause of a large choroid plexus cyst : Trisomy 18.
64. Most common cause of a large pleural fluid collection in the newborn period : Chylothorax
65. Most common cause of acute renal failure in children requiring dialysis : HUS
66. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in postpubertal male : Acute epididymitis
67. Most common cause of acute testicular pain in prepubertal male : Torsion
68. Most common cause of AIDS cholangiopathy : Cryptosporidium
69. Most common cause of an echogenic renal mass in a 3-month-old : Mesoblastic nephroma.
70. Most common cause of an intraorbital mass lesion in adult : Pseudotumor of Orbit
71. Most common cause of AS in Western world : Degenerative disease
72. Most common cause of bilateral breast edema : CHF.
73. Most common cause of bilateral echogenic renal cortex : Chronic glomerulonephritis.
74. Most common cause of biliary obstruction : Choledocholithiasis
75. Most common cause of bleeding between menstrual cycles : Endometrial hyperplasia.
76. Most common cause of bronchopneumonia : Staphylococcal
77. Most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females : Bronchogenic Carcinoma
78. Most common cause of cause of infectious esophagitis : Candida Esophagitis
79. Most common cause of cavitary (necrotic) pneumonia in a child : Strep pneum.
80. Most common cause of Charcot joints : Diabetes mellitus
81. Most common cause of CHF in a child : ALCAPA / aberrant left coronary artery
82. Most common cause of CHF in a neonate : Hypoplastic Left Heart.
83. Most common cause of chronic hydronephrosis in renal transplant : UV anastomosis stricture.
84. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in adults : Malignancy
85. Most common cause of colonic obstruction in the infant : Meconium plug syndrome in CF patients
86. Most common cause of colovesical fistula : Diverticulitis
87. Most common cause of congenital CNS infection : CMV.
88. Most common cause of congenital duodenal obstruction : Duodenal atresia.
89. Most common cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss : Giant vestibular aqueduct syndrome
90. Most common cause of cord ischemia : Thromboembolic disease
91. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm in USA : Atherosclerosis
92. Most common cause of coronary artery aneurysm Worldwide : Kawasaki
93. Most common cause of cyanosis in a child : Tetralogy of Fallot
94. Most common cause of cyanosis n newborn Transposition of great vessels
95. Most common cause of death in a severe pelvic fracture : Hemorrhage.
96. Most common cause of death in Ataxia –Telangiectasia : Respiratory failure.
97. Most common cause of death in Jeune syndrome : Respiratory failure
98. Most common cause of drop mets : Medulloblastoma
99. Most common cause of dwarfism : Achondroplasia
100. Most common cause of echogenic renal pyramids in children : Furosemide
101. Most common cause of ejaculatory duct obstruction : Mullerian duct cyst ?
102. Most common cause of endometriosis in girls <16 years of age : Obstructive müllerian duct anomalies
103. Most common cause of end-stage renal disease : Diabetic Nephropathy
104. Most common cause of epididymitis in males aged 15 to 35 years : Sexually transmitted diseases
105. Most common cause of esophageal rupture : Iatrogenic
106. Most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in patients <30 years of age : CF
107. Most common cause of facial hemipalsy : Bell palsy
108. Most common cause of false-positive V/Q scan for acute PE : Previous pulmonary embolism
109. Most common cause of fungal infection in AIDS patients : Cryptococcosis
110. Most common cause of gastrocolic fistula : Gastric ulcer.
111. Most common cause of heart failure in patients with COPD : Atherosclerotic heart disease
112. Most common cause of hemifacial spasticity is vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia.
113. Most common cause of hepatic calcifications : Infection
114. Most common cause of hydronephrosis in the newborn male : Ureteropelvic junction
115. Most common cause of hyperreflexive bladder : Spinal cord trauma
116. Most common cause of increased nuchal thickness : Downs syndrome
117. Most common cause of interstitial and airspace edema : CHF
118. Most common cause of intradiaphragmatic cyst :Extralobar sequestration
119. Most common cause of intraventricular hemorrhage :Disruption of the subependymal veins
120. Most common cause of intussusception in children >6 years : Lymphoma
121. Most common cause of large spherical pancreatic calcifications in children : Hereditary pancreatitis
122. Most common cause of left atrial dilatation : Mitral regurgitation.
123. Most common cause of leukokoria : Retinoblastoma.
124. Most common cause of liver metastasis : Colon.
125. Most common cause of lower extremity venous valve dysfunction : DVT.
126. Most common cause of lower GI bleeding : Diverticulosis.
127. Most common cause of malignancy of men in the world -- Bronchogenic Carcinoma
128. Most common cause of maternal peripartum death : Amniotic fluid embolism
129. Most common cause of membranous croup : Staph. Aureus.
130. Most common cause of microcolon: Meconium ileus.
131. Most common cause of mortality in ulcerative colitis : Toxic megacolon.
132. Most common cause of necrolytic migrating erythema : Glucagonoma
133. Most common cause of neonatal nasal obstruction : Choanal atresia.
134. Most common cause of Neonatal Pneumonia : Group B streptococcus.
135. Most common cause of neonatal respiratory distress in full term/postmature infants – Meconium aspiration
136. Most common cause of nephrocalcinosis in adults : Primary hyperparathyroidism
137. Most common cause of non-immune hydrops in USA : Cardiac anomaly
138. Most common cause of optic nerve enlargement : Optic nerve glioma
139. Most common cause of orbital calcifications : Retinoblastoma
140. Most common cause of orbital infection : Paranasal sinusitis
141. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer
142. Most common cause of osteoblastic bone metastases in an adult male : Prostate cancer
143. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in a child : Neuroblastoma
144. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult female : Breast cancer
145. Most common cause of osteolytic bone metastases in an adult male : Lung cancer
146. Most common cause of Osteomyelitis of spine : Penetrating direct trauma
147. Most common cause of pancreatic lipomatosis in children : CF
148. Most common cause of pleural eosinophilia : Air in the pleural space
149. Most common cause of pneumoperitoneum : Ruptured duodenal ulcer.
150. Most common cause of postpartum fever : Endometritis.
151. Most common cause of pseudomyxoma peritonei : Appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma
152. Most common cause of pseudoureterocele : Bladder tumor
153. Most common cause of pulmonary hypoplasia : Diaphragmatic hernia
154. Most common cause of pulmonary tumor embolus : Gastric carcinoma
155. Most common cause of recurrent hip disloc. s/p hip arthroplasty : Acetabular component malposition
156. Most common cause of reflux in child w/ non-duplicated collecting system: Short intramural ureter.
157. Most common cause of renal vein thrombosis in adults : Nephrotic syndrome
158. Most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy : Amyloid
159. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus.
160. Most common cause of round pneumonia in children : Streptococcus
161. Most common cause of small bowel obstruction : Adhesions
162. Most common cause of squamous cell ca. in the renal pelvis : Chronic Infected stag horn calculus
163. Most common cause of stridor in neonate and young infant : Laryngomalacia
164. Most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young people Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
165. Most common cause of SVC syndrome : Bronchogenic carcinoma
166. Most common cause of testicular swelling : Hydrocele
167. Most common cause of the pulmonary-renal syndrome : Microscopic polyangitis.
168. Most common cause of the stripe sign on V/Q scan : COPD
169. Most common cause of thoracic outlet syndrome : Scalene anticus.
170. Most common cause of toxic mega colon : Pseudomembranous colitis.
171. Most common cause of tree in bud appearance on CT : Bronchiolitis
172. Most common cause of tricuspid stenosis : Rheumatic heart disease
173. Most common cause of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis : Malignant invasion
174. Most common cause of unilateral nonperfused lung on V/Q scan : Bronchogenic carcinoma
175. Most common cause of unilateral pulmonary edema : Prolonged unilateral dependent positioning
176. Most common cause of urinary obstruction in boys : posterior urethral valves
177. Most common cause of valvular heart disease in the United States : Degenerative
178. Most common cause of vascular ring : Double arch.
179. Most common cause of vertebra plana in children : EG
180. Most common cause requiring bronchial artery embolization : CF
181. Most common cause worldwide for cholangiocarcinoma : Clonorchis sinensis infestation
182. Most common cerebellar neoplasm in children : Medulloblastoma
183. Most common cerebral mass lesion in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
184. Most common chest radiograph finding seen in pts with an acute PE : Atelectasis
185. Most common chest x-ray abnormality in the ICU : Atelectasis
186. Most common child abuse facture : Diaphyseal fracture,
187. Most common collagen disorder for a pleural effusion : SLE
188. Most common colonic polyp : Hyperplastic polyp
189. Most common colonic site for lymphoma : Cecum
190. Most common complication of ERCP : Pancreatitis
191. Most common complication of popliteal artery aneurysm : Distal ischemia (thrombosis/embolism)
192. Most common complication with IVC filters : DVT.
193. Most common component of mixed germ cell tumors : Embryonal Cell Carcinoma
194. Most common congenital abnormality of GI tract : Meckel’s diverticulum
195. Most common congenital anomaly of CNS in live births : Myelomeningocele
196. Most common congenital defect of CNS : Anencephaly.
197. Most common congenital head and neck cyst in a child : Thornwaldt cyst
198. Most common congenital heart disease : Bicuspid aortic valve.
199. Most common congenital intracranial tumor : Epidermoid or inclusion cyst
200. Most common congenital lesion of bile ducts : Choledochal Cyst
201. Most common congenital skeletal dysplasia : Achondroplasia.
202. Most common congenital solid tumor in the newborn : Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (1:40K live births)
203. Most common cranial nerve affected by a pituitary macroadenoma : CN VI.
204. Most common cranial nerve to be affected with schwannoma : VIII
205. Most common craniofacial malformation : Facial Clefting
206. Most common crystalline arthropathy : CPPD
207. Most common CT finding in bowel ischemia : Bowel wall thickening.
208. Most common cyanotic congenital heart malformation beyond neonatal period : TOF
209. Most common cyst of the jaw : Radicular cyst = Periapical cyst
210. Most common cystic lesion of prostate : Cystic degeneration of BPH
211. Most common cystic tumor of pancreas : Mucinous cystic neoplasm
212. Most common diffuse breast disorder : Fibrocystic disease of breast.
213. Most common diffuse gray matter degenerative disease : Alzheimer’s
214. Most common dislocated auditory ossicle longitudinal temporal bone fracture : Incus
215. Most common dislocation in adult : Glenohumeral.
216. Most common dislocation in child : Elbow.
217. Most common epididymal neoplasm : Adenomatoid tumor
218. Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor : Granulosa Cell Tumor
219. Most common etiology for chronic temporal lobe epilepsy : Ganglioglioma
220. Most common etiology for multiple small gastric polyps : Hyperplastic polyps.
221. Most common etiology for osteomyelitis : Staphylococcus aureus.
222. Most common etiology of bilaterally enlarged, hyperechoic kidneys in newborn infant : ARPKD.
223. Most common etiology of mesenteric adenitis : Viral
224. Most common etiology of pneumomediastinum : Alveolar rupture.
225. Most common etiology of rickets : Vitamin D deficiency.
226. Most common extra-adrenal site of pheochromocytoma : Organ of Zuckerkandl.
227. Most common extraaxial neoplasm of CNS : Meningioma
228. Most common extragonadal site of primary germ cell tumors : Anterior mediastinum.
229. Most common extrapulmonary site of tuberculosis : Urinary tract
230. Most common fetal cardiac anomaly seen on 4 chamber view US : AV canal defect (aka ECD)
231. Most common fibromatosis in childhood : Infantile Myofibromatosis
232. Most common finding of a tubal pregnancy seen on US images Adnexal mass separate from ovary
233. Most common finding of contralateral kidney in MCKD : Reflux
234. Most common fluid collection seen in transplant patients : Lymphoceles.
235. Most common form of aortic stenosis : Valvular
236. Most common form of carpal instability : DISI
237. Most common form of emphysema in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency : Panlobular emphysema
238. Most common form of emphysema in nonsmokers : Panlobular emphysema
239. Most common form of emphysema in smokers : Centrilobular emphysema
240. Most common form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy : Asymmetric involvement of the interventricular septum
241. Most common form of skeletal dysplasia : Acquired skeletal dysplasia.
242. Most common form of systemic vasculitis in adults : Giant cell (temporal) arteritis
243. Most common fracture of forearm : Colles
244. Most common functional tumors of the ovary : Sex cord–stromal tumors
245. Most common fungal infection in AIDS : Cryptococcus.
246. Most common genitourinary organ affected by neurofibromas : Urinary bladder
247. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production :Choriocarcinoma.
248. Most common germ cell tumor associated with excessive hCG production after choriocarcinoma : Dysgerminoma.
249. Most common GI neoplasm : Adenoma
250. Most common GI tract location for primary extranodal lymphoma : Stomach, usually NHL type.
251. Most common glial tumor in adults : Ependymoma
252. Most common glial tumor in NF 1 : JPA.
253. Most common glial tumor with microcalcifications : Oligodendroglioma
254. Most common gynecologic neoplasm : Uterine Leiomyoma
255. Most common hereditary hypercoagulable condition : Factor V Leiden
256. Most common hereditary leukodystrophy : Metachromatic leukodystrophy
257. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with cavitation : Squamous
258. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pancoast tumor : Squamous
259. Most common histologic type of bronchogenic carcinoma associated with pleural effusion : Adenocarcinoma
260. Most common histologic type of lung cancer associated with asbestosis exposure : BAC
261. Most common histologic type of primary cutaneous lymphoma :T-cell lymphoma
262. Most common ILD to be found in association with collagen vascular disease : NSIP
263. Most common indication for percutaneous vertebroplasty : Osteoporosis.
264. Most common infection to cause cerebellar hypoplasia & migration anomalies : CMV
265. Most common infratentorial neoplasm in an adult : Metastases
266. Most common inherited disease among Caucasian Americans : CF
267. Most common internal enhancement pattern in DCIS with non mass like enhancement : Clumped enhancement
268. Most common intracranial for site of teratomas : Pineal region.
269. Most common intracranial presentation of TB : Tuberculous meningitis.
270. Most common intramedullary spinal neoplasm in adults : Ependymoma of Spinal Cord
271. Most common intramedullary tumor in children : Astrocytoma
272. Most common intramedullary tumor of adults : Ependymoma.
273. Most common intraocular neoplasm in childhood : Retinoblastoma
274. Most common intraorbital tumors found in adults : Cavernous hemangiomas.
275. Most common intrathoracic fetal anomaly : Congenital diaphragmatic Hernia
276. Most common intrathoracic foregut cyst : Bronchogenic Cyst
277. Most common intrauterine CNS infection : CMV
278. Most common intravascular venous tumor : Leiomyosarcoma of IVC
279. Most common in-utero renal tumor : Mesoblastic nephroma.
280. Most common invasive gynecologic malignancy : Endometrial malignancy
281. Most common islet cell tumor in MEN 1 : Gastrinoma
282. Most common islet cell tumor of the pancreas : Insulinoma.
283. Most common joint involved in synovial osteochondromatosis : Knee
284. Most common lesion to cause expansion of paranasal sinus : Mucocele
285. Most common lethal bone dysplasia : Osteogenesis imperfecta type II ?
286. Most common liver tumor after metastases : Hemangioma
287. Most common lobe affected in bronchial atresia : Left upper lobe.
288. Most common location for a cephalhematoma : Parietal
289. Most common location for a gastric diverticulum : Posterior wall of the gastric fundus.
290. Most common location for a pilocytic astrocytoma : Cerebellum
291. Most common location for a solitary myeloma of the bone : Thoracolumbar spine
292. Most common location for a synovial sarcoma : Knee
293. Most common location for a Tarlov cyst : Posterior rootlets of S2 + S3
294. Most common location for abdominal sarcoid involvement : Stomach
295. Most common location for atelectatic asbestos pseudotumor : Posteromedial & -lateral basal region of lower lobes
296. Most common location for chordomas : Sacral spine.
297. Most common location for gallbladder perforation : Fundus
298. Most common location for Sclerosing Osteomyelitis of Garré (sterile Osteomyelitis) : Mandible
299. Most common location for typhlitis : Cecum.
300. Most common location for well-differentiated liposarcoma : Thigh
301. Most common location in biliary tree for cholangiocarcinoma : Upper third/perihilar region.
302. Most common location in the spine for an osteochondroma : Cervical (C2) followed by thoracic T8
303. Most common location of a meningioma in the spine : Thoracic spinal cord
304. Most common location of a periurethral diverticulum in a female : Posterolateral.
305. Most common location of an ectopic pregnancy : Ampullary region of the fallopian tube.
306. Most common location of benign and malignant masses in breast : Upper outer quadrant
307. Most common location of bronchogenic carcinoma : Right upper lobe
308. Most common location of coarctation : Postductal beyond the origin of the left subclavian artery.
309. Most common location of coronary calcifications : LAD.
310. Most common location of DAI : Frontotemporal gray–white matter junction.
311. Most common location of GIST : Stomach.
312. Most common location of GU obstruction in a neonatal male : Ureteropelvic junction.
313. Most common location of intracranial dissection : Vertebral arteries.
314. Most common location of intraorbital abscess : Subperiosteal space on medial wall.
315. Most common location of intraventricular meningioma : Atrium of the lateral ventricle.
316. Most common location of oligodendroglioma : Frontal lobe.
317. Most common location of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma : Temporal lobes.
318. Most common location of pulmonary sequestration : Posterior medial lower.
319. Most common location of PVNS : Knee.
320. Most common location of sarcoidosis in spinal cord : Cervical.
321. Most common location of the biliary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma : CBD
322. Most common location of triquetral fracture is dorsal avulsion
323. Most common location to find a lithopedion : Adnexae
324. Most common location to see intravertebral vacuum phenomenon (Kümmell Disease) : Thoracolumbar junction
325. Most common lung infection in HIV: Bacterial pneumonia
326. Most common lung mass : Granuloma
327. Most common lysosomal storage disorder : Gaucher’s disease
328. Most common malformation associated with callosal agenesis : Dandy-Walker malformation.
329. Most common malignancy of childhood : Leukemia.
330. Most common malignancy of parotid gland in adult : Mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
331. Most common malignant abdominal neoplasm in children 1–8 years old : Wilms Tumor.
332. Most common malignant bone tumor in children : Ewings
333. Most common malignant cause of bilateral global renal enlargement : Lymphoma.
334. Most common malignant neoplasm of diaphragm : Fibrosarcoma.
335. Most common malignant neoplasm of the spleen : Lymphoma.
336. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous adenocarcinoma.
337. Most common malignant ovarian neoplasm : Serous cystadenocarcinoma.
338. Most common malignant primary bone tumor in young adults + children : Osteosarcoma
339. Most common malignant radiation-induced tumor of the musculoskeletal system : MFH
340. Most common malignant sex cord–stromal tumor : Granulosa cell tumor
341. Most common malignant testicular neoplasm : Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
342. Most common malignant tumor affecting ribs of children + adolescents : Ewings Sarcoma
343. Most common malignant tumor of the abdomen in patients with NF1 Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
344. Most common malignant tumor of the duodenum : Adenocarcinoma.
345. Most common malignant tumor of the heart : Angiosarcoma
346. Most common malignant tumor of the small bowel : Carcinoid
347. Most common mammographic finding in DCIS : Microcalcifications
348. Most common mammographic finding in Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma : Architectural distortion.
349. Most common manifestation of asbestosis exposure : Pleural plaques
350. Most common manifestation of asbestos-related pleural disease : Pleural effusion
351. Most common manifestation of blunt chest trauma : Pulmonary contusion
352. Most common mass lesion of the cerebellopontine angle after acoustic schwannoma : Meningioma
353. Most common mediastinal germ cell tumor : Seminoma.
354. Most common mediastinal mass in a child between the ages of 6 & 12 years old : Lymphoma
355. Most common mediastinal neurogenic tumor : Schwannoma
356. Most common mesenchymal origin neoplasm of GI tract : GIST
357. Most common metabolic liver disease in children : Hepatic cirrhosis in homozygous alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
358. Most common metastases to the spleen : Breast carcinoma
359. Most common metastasis to the heart : Melanoma
360. Most common metastatic cause of linitis plastica : Breast carcinoma
361. Most common metatarsal to have a stress fracture : Second metatarsal.
362. Most common missed type of breast cancer on mammography : Infiltrating/Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.
363. Most common mitral valve abnormality in the Western world : Non-rheumatic mitral valve disease.
364. Most common monodermal teratoma : Struma ovarii.
365. Most common motor neuron disease : ALS.
366. Most common MR imaging finding in DCIS : Non-masslike enhancement.
367. Most common mycotic pneumonia in an AIDS patient : Cryptococcus.
368. Most common natural outcome of the VSD : Spontaneous complete closure.
369. Most common neonatal cyanotic congenital heart malformation : TGV
370. Most common neonatal lesion of adrenal gland : Nontraumatic Adrenal Hemorrhage.
371. Most common neoplasm of conus medullaris : Myxopapillary Ependymoma of Spinal Cord.
372. Most common neoplasm of internal auditory canal / cerebellopontine angle : Vestibular Schwannoma.
373. Most common neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with NF1: Neurofibromas.
374. Most common nerve to be involved in tarsal tunnel syndrome : Posterior tibial nerve.
375. Most common nonepidemic meningoencephalitis in immunocompetent individuals in US : Herpes Encephalitis.
376. Most common nonepithelial malignant bladder tumor : Leiomyosarcoma.
377. Most common nonepithelial tumor in the colon : Lipoma.
378. Most common nonepithelial tumor of the bladder : Leiomyoma.
379. Most common nonglial primary tumors of the central nervous system : Meningiomas.
380. Most common nonlymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in adults : Chordoma.
381. Most common nonlymphoproliferative primary malignant tumor of the spine in children : PNET.
382. Most common nontraumatic cause of acute limp in a child : Toxic synovitis.
383. Most common non-traumatic cause of facial nerve paralysis & hearing loss : CPA tumor.
384. Most common odontogenic mass : Odontoma= odontogenic hamartomatous malformation.
385. Most common of all alimentary tract duplications : Small Bowel Duplication Cyst.
386. Most common of cerebral vascular malformation : DVA.
387. Most common opportunistic infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis.
388. Most common organism involved in pancreatic abscess : E. Coli.
389. Most common organism of acute pyogenic meningitis in infants & children : N. meningitides.
390. Most common origin of cystic artery : Right hepatic artery.
391. Most common osteochondrodysplasia : Hereditary Multiple Exostoses
392. Most common ovarian neoplasm : Dermoid aka dermoid cyst = Mature cystic teratoma
393. Most common ovarian tumor-related morbidity : Bowel obstruction
394. Most common pancreatic abnormality in adult pt's with CF : Complete fatty replacement
395. Most common paraneoplastic disease associated with thymoma : Myasthenia gravis
396. Most common parasitic infection involving CNS in developing countries : Cysticercosis
397. Most common parotid disease in children : Mumps parotitis.
398. Most common pattern of bronchial arteries : Two left & one right bronchial artery
399. Most common pattern of enhancement at DE MR cardiac imaging : Patchy midwall enhancement with multiple foci
400. Most common pattern of hepatic involvement of secondary lymphoma : Diffuse infiltrative
401. Most common pattern of spread in Gallbladder Carcinoma : Direct spread.
402. Most common pediatric glioma : JPA
403. Most common pediatric tumor causing isosexual precocious puberty in a girl : Granulosa cell tumor
404. Most common phakomatoses : NF1
405. Most common pineal tumor : Pineal Germinoma
406. Most common predisposing cause to develop pneumothorax during percutaneous lung biopsy : COPD
407. Most common predisposing disorder of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax : COPD
408. Most common pregnancy-related mortality in the first trimester Ectopic pregnancy
409. Most common presentation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis : Dyspnea
410. Most common presentation in stuck twin syndrome : Monochorionic diamniotic
411. Most common presentation of bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC) : Solitary pulmonary nodule.
412. Most common presentation of GIST on cross sectional imaging : Cystic areas of necrosis.
413. Most common presentation of mesoblastic nephroma : Palpable mass at birth.
414. Most common presentation of neurocysticercosis : Seizures.
415. Most common presenting symptom of Osler Weber Rendu : Hemoptysis.
416. Most common primary benign mesenteric tumor : Desmoid.
417. Most common primary brain tumor : GBM.
418. Most common primary cardiac tumors in adults : Myxomas.
419. Most common primary cerebellar mass in an adult : Hemangioblastoma
420. Most common primary demyelinating disease : MS
421. Most common primary female urethral malignancy : Squamous cell carcinoma
422. Most common primary hepatic neoplasm in infants & children <5 years old : Hepatoblastoma
423. Most common primary intraocular neoplasm in adult Caucasian : Uveal Melanoma
424. Most common primary lung tumor under age 16 : Bronchial Adenoma
425. Most common primary malignant rib tumor : Chondrosarcoma
426. Most common primary malignant sacral tumor : Sacrococcygeal Chordoma
427. Most common primary malignant soft-tissue tumor of late adult life : Soft-tissue MFH
428. Most common primary neoplasm of the spleen : Cavernous hemangioma
429. Most common primary neoplasms of the anterior superior mediastinum Thymomas.
430. Most common primary posterior mediastinal neoplasms :Neurogenic tumors
431. Most common primary tumor of the diaphragm : Lipoma
432. Most common radiation-induced CNS tumor : Meningioma
433. Most common reason for cardiac transplantation : Dilated cardiomyopathy
434. Most common recognized CNS manifestation of VHL disease : Hemangioblastoma of CNS
435. Most common relevant finding on cavogram for IVC filter placement : Circumaortic left renal vein.
436. Most common renal fusion anomaly : Horseshoe kidney
437. Most common renal mass in a 3 months old infant : Mesoblastic nephroma
438. Most common respiratory cause of cold agglutinin production : Mycoplasma pneumonia
439. Most common retinal infection in AIDS : Toxoplasmosis
440. Most common right cardiophrenic angle mass : Epicardial fat-pad/lipoma
441. Most common segment involved in tracheobronchial injury : Right lower lobe bronchus.
442. Most common sex cord-stromal cell tumor : Ovarian Fibroma
443. Most common sign of failing dialysis graft : Increased venous pressures
444. Most common sign of tuberous sclerosis : Myoclonic seizures
445. Most common single cause of breast lumps in females between 35 to 55 years of age : Breast cyst
446. Most common site for an intracardiac papillary fibroelastoma : Aortic valve.
447. Most common site for aneurysm in the chest : Descending thoracic aorta.
448. Most common site for cardiac myxoma : Left atrium
449. Most common site for intra cardiac thrombus formation : Atrial appendage.
450. Most common site for optic melanoma metastases : Liver.
451. Most common site for penetrating aortic ulcers : Descending thoracic aorta
452. Most common site of abdominal involvement in Hodgkins disease : Spleen
453. Most common site of aortic dissection : Prox. Desc. Thoracic aorta near ductus lig. attachment
454. Most common site of biliary tract injury caused by blunt abdominal trauma : Gallbladder
455. Most common site of monostotic fibrous dysplasia : Ribs
456. Most common site of rupture of sinus of Valsalva aneurysm : RV followed by RA.
457. Most common solid extracranial tumor of childhood : Neuroblastoma
458. Most common spermatic cord tumor : Lipoma
459. Most common spinal cord segment of lymphoma of spinal cord : Cervical
460. Most common spinal cord tumor : Ependymoma
461. Most common spinal location for cord astrocytoma : Thoracic
462. Most common spinal location for cord ependymoma : Cervical
463. Most common subcortical degenerative disease : Parkinson’s
464. Most common subglottic soft-tissue upper resp. tract obstructing mass in neonates : Subglottic Hemangioma
465. Most common submucosal tumor in colon : Lipoma
466. Most common subtype of NHL involving the esophagus : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
467. Most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma : Clear cell adenocarcinomas
468. Most common suprasellar mass : Craniopharyngioma
469. Most common syndromic islet cell tumor : Insulinoma
470. Most common systemic allergic hypersensitivity-related acute small-vessel vasculitis in children : HSP
471. Most common systemic fungal infection in immunocompromised patients : Candidiasis Of Liver
472. Most common tarsal bone to get fractured : Calcaneus
473. Most common tarsal coalition : Talocalcaneal
474. Most common testicular tumor in a young boy : Yolk sac tumor
475. Most common tibial plateau fractures : Lateral tibial plateau (Schatzker classification type I–III)
476. Most common trigonal intraventricular mass in adulthood : Meningioma
477. Most common tumor of adenohypophysis : Pituitary Adenoma
478. Most common tumor of genitourinary tract : Metachronous TCC
479. Most common tumor of the appendix : Carcinoid
480. Most common tumor of the esophagus : Leiomyomas
481. Most common tumor of the minor salivary glands : Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
482. Most common type of abdominal wall hernia : Inguinal hernia
483. Most common type of ASD : Ostium secundum
484. Most common type of brain hernaition : anterior / uncal transtentorial
485. Most common type of brain herniation : Subfalcine herniation
486. Most common type of C2 fractures : Type 2
487. Most common type of cancer to arise from a thyroglossal duct cyst : Papillary carcinoma
488. Most common type of cardiomyopathy : Dilated cardiomyopathy
489. Most common type of choledochal cyst : fusiform dilatation of the extrahepatic duct Type 1c
490. Most common type of congenital internal hernia : Left paraduodenal hernia
491. Most common type of encephalocele in SE Asia: Sincipital Encephalocele
492. Most common type of encephalocele in US : Occipital Encephalocele
493. Most common type of endoleak in the abdominal aorta : Type II endoleak
494. Most common type of endoleak in the thoracic aorta : Type I endoleak
495. Most common type of fracture of the proximal 5th metatarsal bone : Peroneus brevis avulsion fracture.
496. Most common type of gallbladder inflammation : Chronic cholecystitis
497. Most common type of internal hernia : Postoperative, transmesenteric hernias.
498. Most common type of intrapulmonary involvement of Hodgkins disease : Bronchovascular form.
499. Most common type of liver abscess : Pyogenic Liver Abscess
500. Most common type of lymphoma involving the head and neck region : Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
501. Most common type of malignancy in undescended testis : Seminoma
502. Most common type of meniscal tear : OBLIQUE / FLAP TEAR
503. Most common type of Mucopolysaccharidoses : Morquio (Type IV)
504. Most common type of non-iatrogenic internal hernia : Left paraduodenal hernia
505. Most common type of noninflammatory odontogenic cyst : Dentigerous cyst = follicular cyst
506. Most common type of of pituitary adenomas : Prolactinoma
507. Most common type of pulmonary amyloidosis : Tracheobronchial type
508. Most common type of pulmonary NHL involvement Secondary involvement due to direct hilar extension
509. Most common type of sarcoma of the larynx : Chondrosarcoma.
510. Most common type of sarcoma of the liver : Angiosarcoma
511. Most common type of temporal bone fractures : Longitudinal type
512. Most common type of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection : Supracardiac, type 1
513. Most common type of VSD : Membranous
514. Most common US characteristic of an ovarian germ cell tumor : Marked hyperechogenic focus
515. Most common vascular tumor of orbit in children : Capillary Hemangioma of Orbit
516. Most common ventral hernia : Umbilical hernia
517. Most common virilizing tumor of ovary : Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
518. Most commonly affected cranial nerve in Lyme disease : Facial nerve
519. Most commonly entrapped fragment in a child after reduction of elbow disloc. : Medial epicondyle.
520. Most commonly entrapped fragment in adult after reduction of elbow dislocation : Coronoid process.
521. Most commonly injured ankle ligament :Anterior talofibular
522. Most commonly involved joint with Charcot arthropathy : Tarsal & tarsometatarsal.
523. Most commonly involved segment of the colon with diverticulitis in USA : Sigmoid colon
524. Most common type of shoulder dislocation : Anterior.
525. Most common type of hip dislocation : Posterior
526. Most common type of odontogenic tumor : Ameloblastoma.
527. Most common type of benign mandibular tumor : Ameloblastoma

Most Commonly asked "MOST COMMONs" inSurgery

1.Most common benign neoplasm of liver- hemangioma
2.Most common primary malignancy of liver- hepatocellular carcinoma
3.Most common hepatic neoplasms- metastasis
4.Most common primary hepatic malignancy in children- hepatoblastoma
5.Most common benign tumor of oesophagus-leiomyoma
6.Most common indication of liver transplantation in children-biliary atresia
7.Most common indication of liver transplantation in adults-cirrhosis of liver
8.Most common bone of the face that is fractured is-nasal bone
9.2nd most common bone of the face that is fractured is – zygomatic bone
10.Most common benign tumor of spleen- hemangioma
11.Most common neoplastic enlargement of spleen- lymphoma
12.Most commo cancer caused as a risk of choledochal cyst –carcinoma of biliary tract
13.Most common type of gall stones- Mixed Stones
14.Most common site of gall stone ileus-distal ileum proximal to ileocaecal junction
15.Most common site for gall stone impaction in CBD- ampulla fo water
16.Most common site for internal fistula of gall bladder-1st part of duodenum
17.2nd most common site for internal fistula of gall bladder-colon
18.Most common cause of supurative cholangitis-gall stones/?CBD stones
19.Most common type of stones among primary and secondary CBD stones-secondary(cholesterol stones)
20.Most common metastasis to liver is from-stomach
21.most common part of CBD injured/prone to stricture during laparoscopic cholecystectomy- upper CBD
22. most common pathological type of gall bladder carcinoma- adenocarcinoma
23.most common cause for hemobilia- blunt trauma
24.most common cause of hemobilia in western countries- hepatic trauma(trauma to intrahepatic branch of hepatic artery)
25. most common cause of hemobilia in oriental countries-ductal parasitism(ascaris lumbricoides)
26. most common cause of obstructive jaundice- CBD stones
27. most common cause of biliary stricture-trauma
28.most common malignancy after cholecystectomy occurs in- stomach
29.most common site of an intraperitoneal/intra-abdominal abscess-pelvis
30.most common organ involved in retroperitoneal fibrosis- ureter
31.most common site of ureteral obstruction-lower 1/3rd of ureter(at the level of pelvic brim)
32.most common cause of abscess in midline/extra peritoneal space-amoebic abscess
33.most common cause of small bowl obstruction and secondary infertility in developed countries-peritoneal adhesions
34.most common cause of chylous ascites-malignancy(lymphoma)
35.most common variety of carcinoma peritonei-discrete nodules
36.most common variety of mesenteric cyet- chylolymphatic cysts
37.most common site for chylolymphatic cyst-mysentery of ileum
38.most common cause of peritonitis in adult male-perforated appendix
39.most common site from where psudomyxoma peritonei arise-appendix
40.most common organism causing (primary) spontaneous bacterial peritonitis-E.coli
41.2nd most common organism causing (primary) spontaneous bacterial peritonitis-klebsiella
42. most common organism causing (secondary) acute suppurative peritonitis-E.coli
43. 2nd most common organism causing (secondary) acute suppurative peritonitis-bacteriodes
44.most common organism causing CAPD – cagualase negative staph. (staph.epidermidis)
45.2nd most common organism causing CAPD-staph.aureus
46.most common site for intraabdominal abscess following laparotomy- subhepatic
47.most common cause of generalised peritonitits in middle aged adult male- duodenal ulcer
48.most common cause of acute mesenteric adenitis- idiopathic
49.the most common organism seen in peritonitis-E.coli
50.most common site of malignant change oflipoma is – retroperitonium
51. MC and earliest symptom in rectal carcinoma----- bleeding
52. 2nd MC symptom in rectal carcinoma ---- alteration in bowl habit 
53. MC type of rectal and colon carcinoma ----columnar cell adenocarcinoma
54. . MC type of anal canal carcinoma ---- squamous cell ca.
55. 2nd MC type of anal canal carcinoma ---- basal cell ca.
56.MC site for anal fissure ---- midline posteriorly(90%)
57. 2nd MC site for anal fissure ---- midline anteriorly
58. 3rd MC site for melanoma ---- anal canal (1st and 2nd—skin and eye)
59. MC cause of lower GI bleed in adults ---- hemorroids
60. 2nd MC cause of lower GI bleed in adults ----diverticulosis
61. MC cause of massive bleeding per rectum ----diverticulosis
62. MC symptom of fissure in ano (anal fissure)---- pain
63.MC site for blood borne metastasis of rectal ca.----- colorectal ca.
64. ________ variety of rectal ca. is MC at recto sigmoid junction ---- annular variety
65. MC type of ano rectal abscess ---- perianal abscess
66. MC cause of ano rectal abscess ---- fistula in ano
67. MC symptom of rectal polyp ------ pain
68. 1st MC complication after haemorroidectomy----- pain
69. 2nd MC complication after haemorroidectomy----- urinary retention
70 .MC post operative nosocomial infection ----urinary tract infection
71. 2nd MC post operative nosocomial infection----- surgical site infection
77. 3rd MC post operative nosocomial infection---- lower respiratory tract infection
78. MC testicular tumor ------ seminoma
79. MC type of testicular tumor seen in
cryptorchid testis ---- seminoma 
80. MC testicular tumor above 50 yrs ----- lymphoma
81. MC secondary neoplasm of testis ----- lymphoma
82. MC malignancy in older males ---- prostate cancer
83. MC side in which testis does not descend ----right
84. MC side where varicocele occurs ---- left side
85. MC predisposing cause of torsion of testis ----inversion of testis
86. MC symptom of tortion testis ---- pain
87. MC type of primary hydrocele ---- vaginal type
88. MC site of ectopic testis ------ superficial inguinal ring
89. MC cause of surgically treatable infertility -----varicocele
90. MC cause of upper GI bleeding ---- peptic ulcer disease
91. MC bladder stone ----- uric acid stone
92. 2nd MC bladder stone ---- struvite
93. MC tumor of urinary bladder ----- transitional cell cancer
94. MC tumor of urinary bladder in a child ---- rhabdomyosarcoma
95. MC aetiological factor for transitional bladderbcell ca. ----- cigarette smoking
96. MC bladder cancer that is prevalent in bilharzia endemic areas ---- sq. cell. Ca.
97. MC type of buccal ca. ---- sq. cell. Ca.
98. MC type of maxillary ca. ---- sq. cell. Ca
99. MC symptom of bladder ca. ------- painless hematuria
100. MC primary tumor which gives secondary to penis --------- badder ca.

Some poison and their antidote

1. Anticholinergics --> Cholinergics.

2. Atropine and/or scopolamine -Physostigmine.

3. benzodiazepines and barbiturates --> flumazenil.

4. Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil, Diltiazem) --> Calcium Gluconate.

5. Isoniazid --> Pyridoxine.

6. Magnesium --> Calcium Gluconate.

7. opioids --> naloxone.

8. paracetamol (acetaminophen) --> N-acetylcysteine.

9. Thallium --> Prussian blue.

10. Nicotine --> Bupropion and other ganglion blockers.

11. ethylene glycol --> ethanol or fomepizole, and thiamine.

12. methanol --> ethanol or fomepizole, and folinic acid.

Monday, 29 July 2013

Rickets

Earliest manifestation- Craniotabes

Most common manifestation-Bone pain & tenderness

Earlist radiological finding around-seen around wrist

1st radiological sign of healing-white line of frenkel

Types of porphyrias

A very happy english couple playing
Aip
Varigate
Hereditary
Erythropietic
Congenital
Porphyria tarda

1st 3 are hepatic, next 2 are erythropoietic, last 1 both

Saturday, 27 July 2013

Ribs

Longest rib: 7th
Most transverse rib: 8th
Most oblique rib: 9th
Most curved rib: 1st


Friday, 26 July 2013

Schwachman-Diamond syndrome

Schwachman-Diamond syndrome is combination
of
- neutropenia
- metaphyseal dysplasia
- and pancreatic insufficiency
- associated with recurrent infections beginning in the first year of life in the sinuses - bones - lungs - skin and urinary tract; associated with increased risk of aplasia - myelodysplasia - and leukemia; life expectancy is 35 years.

Triangle of koch

It is defined by the following structures within the right atrium:
(1) The ostium of the coronary sinus, posteriorly;
(2) the anterior portion of the tricuspid valve annulus; and
(3) the tendon of Todaro (a tendinous structure connecting the valve of the inferior vena cava ostium to the central fibrous body), posteriorly.

Importance in cardiovascular diseases:
used as an anatomical landmark for location of the atrioventricular node during electrophysiology procedures such as pacing or ablation.

Signs of Down Syndrome

Halls Ten Signs of Down Syndrome in
Newborns
Neonatal sign
with the % Frequency
(percent of newborns affected)
1.Poor Moro reflex 85
2.Hypotonia 80
3.Flat facial profile 90
4.Upward-slanting palpebral fissures
(eyelid openings) 80
5.Morphologically simple, small round
ears 60
6.Redundant loose neck skin 80
7.Single palmar crease 45
8.Hyperextensible large joints 80
9.Pelvis radiograph morphologically
abnormal 70
10.Hypoplasia of fifth finger middle
phalanx 60

Swimmers special 

Swimmer's itch- Schistosomiasis

Swimming pool granuloma- Mycobacterium marinum

Swimming Pool Meningitis- Naegleria Fowleri

Swimming pool conjunctivitis - Chlamydia

Swimmer's ear- Pseudomonas

Swimmer's view- Best to visualise C7 & T1 vertebrae

Colony Appearance in Culture

1. Draughtsman(concentric rings)- Pneumococci
2. Medussa head/frosted glass/inverted fir tree in stab culture/string of pearls- B.anthracis
3. Swimming growth( fishy or semunal smell)- proteus
4. Swarm of gnats or fish in stream- V.cholera
5. Stalactite growth- Yersinia pestis
6. Thumb print appearance/Bisected pearls/
mercury drops/ Aluminium paint appearance- B.petrussis
7. Cigar bundle(globi) appearance- M.leprae
8. Fried egg- Mycoplasma
9. Bread crump- Actinomyces israelii
10. Oil paint- Staphylococci
11. School of red fish- H.ducreyi
12. Stately Motility- Clostrida

Uses of chloroquine.

R-Rheumatoid Arthritis
E-Extra intenstinal Amoebiasis.
D-Discoid lupus erythematosis.
L-Lepra Reaction.
I-Infectious mononucleosis.
P-photogenic Reactions.
My-Maleria..
Gf-Giardiasis.

Monday, 22 July 2013

Mnemonic for causes of avascular necrosis other than fracture –

SCLERA
S – Steroids
C – Caisson’s disease
LE – Lupus Erythematosus
R – Radiation
A – Alcohol

abcd of lead poisoning

a-anemia
b-burtonian line
c-colicky pain , constipation
d-drops (wrist , foot)
e-encphalopathy
f-facial palor
g-gonadal dysgenesis
h-hypertension
i-infertility , interstitial nephritis

Sunday, 21 July 2013

Dermatology Lesions

1) Auspitz sign- Psoriasis
2) Beau's lines (Palpable horizontal deep grooves & ridges on nail)- Trauma, coronary occlusion, infection, Malnutrition, chemotherapy, psoriasis, diabetes,
KAWASAKI DISEASE(after a few months of onset)
3) Muehrcke's nails (Hypopigmented lines on nail. Neither any groove nor any ridge is palpable.)- Chemotherapy, Nephrotic syndrome..
4) Axillary freckles-Neurofibromatosis type 1
5) Café au lait spots-Neurofibromatosis type 1
6) Lisch nodules(Iris)-Neurofibromatosis type 1
7) Buttonhole invagination; Neurofibromatosis type 1
8 )Dennie-Morgan fold- Atopic dermatitis
9) Darier's sign- urticaria pigmentosa.
10) Koebner phenomenon- Psoriasis, Lichen planus, Vitiligo, Pityriasis rubra pilaris
11) Nail pitting- Psoriasis (Auspitz sign & Koebner phenomenon)
12) Wickham's striae- Lichen planus
13) Pterygium of nail- Lichen planus (Cicatrical alopecia, Koebner phenomenon; Bucca mucosa involvement)
14) Herald patch- Pityriasis rosea
15) Christmas tree pattern- Pityriasis rosea
16) Cigarette paper scales- Pityriasis rosea
17) Pin prick itching- Pityriasis versicolor
18) Sun fungus- Pityriasis Versicolor
19) Nickolsky's sign- Toxic epidermal necrolysis & Pemphigus vulgaris
20) Row of Tombstone appearance- Pemphigus vulgaris
21) Acantholysis- Pemphigus vulgaris ( Pemphigus-Intraepidermal blisters, Buccal mucosa
involved.
Pemphigoid-- Subepidermal blisters, Mucosa not involved)
22) Target lesion- Erythema multiforme
23) Bull's eye- Erythema multiforme
24) Iris lesion- Erythema multiforme
25) Garttage test- Psoriasis
26) Candle grease sign- Psoriasis
27) Burkley's membrane- Psoriasis
28) Warnoff ring- Psoriasis
29) Micro-munro abscess- Psoriasis
30) Silvery scales- Psoriasis
31) Onycholysis- Psoriasis


One liners

1. Dawson finger- Multiple sclerosis
2. Snow storm app (knee) ' Synovial chondromatosis
3. Topoisomerase 1 Ab - Diffuse scleroderma
4. SEARO head quarter - Delhi
5. Paranasal sinus investigation -ct
6. Salt n pepper skin -scleroderma
7. dent channelopathy- chloride
8. Dissociative anesthesia - ketamine
9. Dane particle- Haepatitis B
10. Pachymetry- Corneal thickness
11. MCC of Acute otitis media - Pnemococci
12. small intestine opened by enterotome
13. Cimetidine- A/E Gynaecomastia
14. Trophoblastic differentiation : 8th day
15. Broca's: Non fluent aphasia
16. Apple jelly nodules: lupus vulgaris
17. national blindness control programme 1976
18. no. of female mites to diagnose scabies 10-15
19. sleep spindles -stage 2 sleep
20. eligible couple in india -150-200
21. verapamil s/ e constipation
22. alosteron s/e constipation
23. longest LA .... dibucaine
24. jones tendon transfer -radial nerve
25. le fortes operation for elderly
26. Ricketsia -doc doxycycline
27. Cuscos specullam
28. Effrent arterioler constriction more than afferent?>>Increased then decreased
29. peliosis hepatis -bartonella
30. intranuclear basophilic- cmv
31. alcohol destroys bacteria by protein coagulation
32. steroid non depolarising myo relaxant
33. Milk stored in lactiniferous sinuses
34. tachy noire is chane in. eyes aftr death
35. tropical splenomegaly which immungloblin is increaeed???igm
36. renal part of ivc is from subcardinal vein
37. Common peroneal-fibula#
38. Clue cells.. bact vaginosis
39. Owl eye inclusion cmv
40. Somites at 5th wk- answer is 38 pair
41. Suprascapular is not a branch of axilary artery
42. flexor extensor retinaculum picture with tendons
43. Tachy noir me its deposition of debris n mucus..
44. Sphenopalatine ganglion -pain sensation
45. Verapamil mc s/e .. constipation
46. For staging of  non-hodgins.... Pet is first choice f /b nmri....
47. anasthetic with Lowest mac is methoxyflurane
48. Not perceptual - illusion
49. Sacrospinous ligament -degenerated ischiococcygeous muscule
50. grievious hurt- 320sec
51. m stage specific anti neoplastic drug.....vincristine
52. axillary n. supplies deltoid
53. max source of vit a.... halibut liver oil
54. subpoena -written document
55. prob village - not included guinea worm
56. max conc of sodium channel.....initial segmnt of neurom
57. mifepristone and misoprostol can be used for early abortion up to 63 days after the start of the last menstrual period
58. face to pubis delivery anthropoid pelvs
59. Tx of mtx toxicity >> folinic acid
60. ht inc in 2nd yr -12cm
61. benzodizepine without active metabolite....oxazepam
62. acetyl coa carboxylase enzyme - biotin req
63. co attach to complex 4
64. Inf gama -cytotoxic n helper tcel also nk cell
65. rail road pm changes retina
66. T hb stabilised by 23 BPG
67. small pox eradication -8 may 1980
68. acidophilic cell -GH
69. molotov cocktail -petrol bomb
70. somites frm paraxial mesoderm
71. n to myelohoid -ant belly of digastric
72. hemochromatosis hpfe gene
73. alveeoli dry due to negative interstitial pressure FINAL
74. substrate level phosphorylation succinyl thiokinase
75. alveoli prevented from collapsing due to surfactant
76. alosetran s/e constipation
77. Blood vol returns normal in preg after 4-8 wks post delivery 
78. Pontiac fever - legionella
79. Sister joseph nodule- metastasis
80. bad prognosis of wich heart dis in preg. .pulmo. hypertn ,eisenmengr - pulm htn is answer
81. max sensitivity of taste bud glucose sucrose or strychtrine or nacl. answer is strychrine
82. Least penetration is cocaine
83. Diffuse tropoblastic infiltration in complete mole
84. Central pontine myelinosis - hyponatremia rapid correction
85. Restrictive catdiomyopathy - amylodosis
86. Length of Eustachian tube - 36mm
87. Chandipura vector - Sandfly
88. Folfox - colorectal CA
89. Horse shoe kidney - lower pole joined and at L4
90. Malonate - competitive inhibitor Succ DH
91. 2003 epidemic - SARS
92. Bosniak classfn - renal cysts
93. ivermectin dose 200 mcg or 400 mcg answer is 200 mcg
94. peds pt.. hib meningitis... inv done is bera
95. Hawkins sign.. For subtalar lucency
96. what is na ecf level -142
97. shortest actin muscle relaxant- mivacurium
98. neuro retinal rim of optic disc is thick nasally orr inferior final answer is inferiorly
99. non casseous granuloma CD
100. Albendazole dose in children in neurocysticercosis 15 to 20 mg per kg per day for 3 weeks
101. doc hypothy preg -ptu
102. Which is not absolute contra for thrombolytics
1.bp more than 180/110
2.✔diabetic retinal hmrage
3.h/o cerebral hmrage 4.aortic disection
103. Sublingual gland is Mucos
104. Spiral CT - 3mm in 30 secs
105. Swelling better palpated than seen - scalp
106. A pancreatic pseudocyst is a circumscribed collection of fluid rich in pancreatic enzymes
107. Buschke-Ollendorff sign This is a sign to be elicited in case of secondary syphilis
108. Hanging curtain sign in pitriasis rosea
109. sign of child abuse/ beating # scapula, rib , long bone , digits answer is long bones
110. Pronator drift - pyramidal tract lesion
111. All cause sudden death in infant and pediatric age grp except.  A) romanoward  b) AS  c) hypoplastic left heart  d) kawasaki answer is hypoplastic left heart disease
112. tropical spleenomegaly- igm
113. Mental age 8 .patient age 10.... -----IQ 80
114. 100 mg hydrocort = 20 mg prednisolone
115. Dose of iv anti D in ITP--- 75 micrograms/kg
116. Meningococi n gonococi differenciated by maltose fermentation
117. Allodynia- due to stimulus which doesnt normally illicit pain
118. Ercp--- gold standard fr chr pancreatitis
119. Holler Miller sign - Juvenile nasoph angiofibroma
120. favorable factor in neuroblastoma ???? a.less than 18 months b.amplification on n-myc c. increase in telomerase. d. absence of scwann stroma. answer is b
121. cerebral infarct earliest detected in diffusion wt mri
122. Human ear can hear up to wt freqncy?? 20-20000hz
123. ritters disease by staph aureus
124. Munro micro abscess - Psoriasis
125. Snowbanking seen in intermediate uveitis
126. prostate sinus - prostate duct opening
127. kappa angle.....btwn pupillary axis n visual axis
128. Maple syrup dis mutation answer E1a
129. Blood volume becomes pre pregnant state which week -??4weeks
130. muller sign -aortic insufficiency
131. atherosclerosis asso with chlamydia Chlamydia pneumonia to be specific
132. media for listeria -tsye medium,oxford medium and palcam medium
133. metamorphopsia diagnosed by-amsler grid
134. source of nitrogen in urea-nh4+ and aspartate
135. cu 380a failure rate-0.4%
136. banana shaped left ventricle seen in-hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
137. hart's rule-concept that laws are made by human beings and that law and morality are not connected
138. reflected part of inguinal ligament is formed by-external oblique
139. in head injury patient,cerebral perfusion pressure is maintained at-50-70 mmhg
140. drug for idiopathic intracranial hypertension-acetazolamide
141. pseudotumor cerebri vit A toxicity
142. Troilism (sometimes spelled triolism) refers to sexual activity in which three persons take part simultaneously
143. Pre-emptive analgesia is a treatment that is initiated before the surgical procedure in order to reduce this sensitization
144. Metamorphosia test-amsler grid for macular degeneration
145. neurolep anaesthesia Droperidol2.5 plus fentany0.05 plus n2o
146. Hbm-histidine replaced by tyrosine
147. severe mental retardation.... 20-35
148. best inv of ca breast - biopsy
149. sleep drunkeness - somnolentia
150. Ca pancreas detail view
151. Mc oncogene is kras
152. Mc tumor suppressor is p 53
153. line of genmari visual cortex
154. tsh action by cAMP
155. Not crossing placenta are Insulin Pth Calcitonin Tsh
156. ipc fr concealing birth.... 318
157. telefona.....beating on both ears
158. Falagna.. Beating on soles
159. common cold is virus
160. Aplastic crisis.. parvo b19
161. h/o watery discharge itching papilla on upper conjunctiva..... rx....steroid
162. cyclin d- IgH- mantle cell lymphoma
163. mc site fr ectopic pancreas.....stomach
164. sumatriptan agonist....5H1d
165. Peliosis hepatitis... bartonella
166. methotrexate poisoning.....treatmnt.....folinic acid
167. unwinding of dna replication.....by helicase
168. Minimum in 1 breath in 30 sec is 5 cm
169. Mid sagital brain mri visible is pons
170. Thickness of bacterial cell wall 20 to 25 nm
171. fungus causing hair n skin infection......microsporum
172. death after rupture of berry aneurism d/t...SAH
173. noise limit fr factory.... India me 90 for 8 hrs, Who me 85 for 8 hrs
174. salmon patch leprosy
175. common s/e of verapamil....constipation
176. influenza pandemic pattern cyclical
177. ineffective staph--- 3rd gen cephalospor
178. malignant hyperthermia.....succinylcholine, Treatment is dantrolene
179. 1st sign malign hyperthermia is tachycardia
180. bankart lesion......ant surface of labrum in ant dislocation of shoulder, Hill sach is posterolateral
181. Mc dislocated joint in shoulder
182. osgood shatters dis is osteochrondritis of tibial tuberce
183. Shortest acting non depolarozing muscle relaxant.. Mivacurium
184. Preemptive anaesthesia Just before operations
185. Jay vigyan mission mode project.. Rheumatic heart disease
186. anti D to rh negtv pregnant before delivry....which kind of immunity.......  passive
187. Double diffusion method.. Octetlony
188. Cryoglobinemia seen in hep c inf
189. Mcc of meningitis in immunocompromised pt-cryptococcus
190. Mc cause of mental retardation.. Downs synd
191. Treatment type 2 hyperlipopr - Niacin
192. plasmid which gets integrated in jost dna---- episomes
193. tmp n smx combination dose 160 plus 800
194. Stria of gennari seen in occiptl lobe In visual cortex
195. Dose of rTPA in stroke - 0.9mg/kg
196. defense mechanisms are unconscious
197. Non closer of posterior neuropore- spina bifida
198. Unilateral dysmenorrhea - Rudimentary horn in double uterus
199. Acl &pcl both r supplied by middle genicular vessels& nerves
200. mc problem in males answer is erectile dysfunction
201. angular acceleration cristae
202. photosensitivity caused by....demeclocycline
203. mc spinal mets extradural
204. sinus that develops first is maxillary
205. ldh5 is present in liver
206. Christmas tree pattern - Pityriasis Rosea
207. denominator General fertility rate = females in age group 15 to 45
208. lyell syndrome -TEN
209. korthoff media leptospirosis
210. kirby bauer chart antibiotic wafers
211. Pseudo pancreatic cyst contains pancreatic enzymes
212. hypocretins less cause narcolepsy
213. orlistat- antiobesity drug acts peripherally
214. seritonin related to depression
215. old blood stains acid elution technique
216. mc side effect of thiazide.....hypokalemia
217. somatostatin decreases insulin
218. excretry portion of kidney formed by....mesonephric duct
219. Azithro can be given with theophylline
220. medial aspect of greater toe supplied by...deep peroneal n.
221. Collecting portion by ureteric bud
222. bupivacaine.....cardiotoxic
223. Buschke ollendorf sign secondary syphilis
224. NAPCB - 1976
225. Anatomical snuff box -The posterior border of the snuffbox is the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus.The anterior border (closest to the edge of the hand) is a pair of parallel and intimate tendons, of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus.The proximal border is styloid process of the radius. The floor of the snuffbox varies depending on the position of the wrist, but both the trapezium and primarily the scaphoid can be palpated.
226. Not true about gluteus maximus Supplied by superior gluteal nerve
227. Indira Gandhi pension scheme for >65yrs bpl
228. Vibices is post mortem staining
229. Motorcyclist fracture is fracture of base of skull
230. indicator fr burden of disease..... proportional mortality ratio
231. pachymetry.....corneal thickness
232. Rhodopsin gene RHO on chromosome 3
233. Hmb 45 melanoma
234. Bamboo spine ank spondylisis
235. Ivermectin 200ug/kg
236. Testicular feminizing is 46 XY
237. Iodine defn -- prevalence: NNHT,  Effectiveness of intervention/prog: preg urine levels
238. papillary necrosis....not seen in benign nephrosclerosis
239. PQLI does not take account per capita income
240. CD20 maltoma
241. Ix fr chr pancreatitis.....ercp
242. choledocholithiasis caused by.... clofibrate
243. torcetrapib :cetp inhibitior
244. nutmeg liver....chf
245. Unit of study in ecological study is population
246. clue cell...by gardenella in bacterial vaginosis....
247. waterlow classification....malnutrition in children
248. Intranuclear inclusion CMV
249. stave cells in spleen
250. Vit in TCA cycle r B1 B2 niacin n pantothenic acid
251. Summons crpc 61 to 69
252. Best Std prevention by- condom
253. svc formed by rt. ant. cardinal and common cardinal veins
254. Hep virus wit dna HBV
255. Sandifer syndrome ka dd is seizure
256. Femoral. Dorsal L2,3,4
257. delivery by flexion in face presentation
258. Parvo virus 19- erythema infectiosum
259. Stomatostatin _ decrease insulin
260. Disability free - suvillian index
261. Leiner's disease-biotin deficiency
262. Muscle tested to diff b/w high and low radial nerve palsy- brachioradialis
263. Chronic granulomatous disease defect due to macrophages
264. 3rd part of duodenum related to sup mesentric artery
265. Maculae cerulae - pthyrus pubis
266. Agnes hunt traction - hip deformity
267. Cyclin D and Ig H fusion gene defect - mantle cell
268. Vidian neurectomy for vasomotor rhinitis
269. Epornithic - epidemic related to birds.
270. Coenocytic aseptate fungus- zygo
271. Greenish discolouration of skin due to sulph hb
272. Refsum's disease - def of phytanic acid oxidase
273. Chr prostatitis - antib given for 4-6 wks..
274. Mcc of renal calcium stones - idiopathic
275. Deep hair follicle infectn- furuncle
276. Tibialis post - causes inversion foot and attached to navicular bone
277. Jan vigyan mission project - RHD
278. cecal volvulus answer is right hemicolectomy and ileocolostomy for sure..
279. Icd 10 unnamed disease classifed under U section.
280. Mc type of scoliosis is idiopathic.
281. Fistula formation in HCC CANAL.
282. Tropical splenomegaly IgM inclusion
283. Cyclin d nd igh gene mantle cell lymphoma
284. O' dounouge triad acl + mcl+mm
285. Rickettsia ConroI nt in Australia
286. Bronchial smooth muscle hyperplasia in asthma
287. Ivory vertebrae in paget's disease
288. Tyrosinemia type 1 - fumaryl acetoacetate hydroxylase deficiency
289. Mc site of occupational carcinoma - skin
290. Candle wax drippings - seen in sarcoidosis
291. Acidophil cells produce GH and prolactin
292. Most specific index for renal tubular function-- is urine concentrating ability.
293. Lysine helps in crosslinking of collagens, providing strength to the skin
294. Structure seen at the base of 4 th ventricle..Stria terminals Stria medullaris Stria medullaris thalami Ans..stria medullaris
295. Vit d rda -400 iu
296. father of nonparalytic polio- j.Salk (confirm)
297. Atleast 10000bacilli/ml for sputum smear positivity

Saturday, 20 July 2013

Appetite

Factors incresing apetite
N-Neuropeptide Y
O-Orexin A n B
G-Ghrelin
A-Agouti related protien
M-MCH
Factors  decreasing appetite
L-Leptin
O- Oxyntomedalin
Man- MSH (alpha)

Thursday, 18 July 2013

Some frequently asked questions on Ca. Ovary

Stage of Carcinoma cervix with hydronephrosis!?
Stage 3b
Stage of ca ovary with superficial liver metastasis?
Stage 3
Stage of ca ovary with parenchymatous liver metastasis?
Stage 4
Inguinal lymph node involvement in ca ovary??
Stage 3c
Superficial Inguinal lymph node involvement in ca endometrium?? 4b
Lung involvement in gestational trophoblastic tumours????
Stage 3
Inflammatory breast carcinoma stage?
Stage 4d
Stage of breast ca with peau d orange appearance? ?
Stage 4b

MEDICAL DISORDERS DURING PREGNANCY

A) Valvular Heart
a) MS
* Most common valvular disease causing death in pregnancy.
* Sudden death if hypovolemia occurs.
* Prone for Tachyarrythmias.
* Digoxin, Beta blockers.
* Treatment-Balloon mitral valvulotomy
b) AS
* Well tolerated.
* Decrease in systemic vascular resistance reduces risk of cardiac failure.
B) Congenital Heart Disease
* Increase risk of congenital cardiac disease in newborn
*ASD/VSD- well Tolerated
C) SVT
* Common
* Adenosine, can be used
* Electrocardioversion – well Tolerated in pregnancy
D) Peripartum Cardiomyopathy
* Uncommon.
* Most recover.
* May progress to DCM.
* Can recur in next pregnancy.
E) Marfans
* High risk of maternal mortality.
* Aortic root diameter < 40mm – favourable prognosis.
* Beta Blockers.
*15% of pregnant women develop a major cardiovascular manifestation during pregnancy.
*Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) - associated with premature labor, and in type IV EDS, there is increased risk of uterine rupture.(18th edition)
F) PHT
* Primary PHT is a contraindication. (AIIMS 2009), [AI 2010***]
* Vaginal delivery is less stressfull than CS.
*Eisenmenger syndrome - maternal and fetal death occur frequently.
G) DVT
* Hypercoaggulable state.
*Associated with an increase in procoagulants such as factors V and VII, and a decrease in anticoagulant activity, including proteins C and S.(18th edition)
* More common in left leg (compression of lt. iliac vein).
* 25% with DVT have factor V leiden mutation
* Prothrombin G20210A mutation (homo, hetero zygos).
* Methylene Tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation (homozygotes)..
* Trt – LMWH
Warfarin
- 1st Trimester – chondrodysplasia punctata
- 2nd, 3rd Trimester – foetal optic atrophy.
- mental retardation.
- not contraindicated in breast feeding.
H) Obesity
*An increased risk of stillbirth, congenital fetal malformations, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, urinary tract infections, and post-date deliveries.
*Following bariatric surgery, women should delay conception for one year.(18TH EDITION)
I)Hematologic disease
* Physiologic anemia.
* Thrombocytopenia-immune thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura(18TH EDITION), and preeclampsia-Benign gestational Thrombocytopenia (common)- also associated with the development of DIC, including retention of a dead fetus, sepsis, abruptio placenta, and amniotic fluid embolism.
* Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)- characterized by thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), elevated fibrin degradation products, and a low fibrinogen concentration.(18TH EDITION)
J)HELLP
- A severe preeclampsia.
- Hemolysis.
- Elevated liver enzymes.
- Low platelet.
* Mild preeclampsia – conservative.
* Severe preeclampsia – Delivery.
* Drugs
- Labetol, Hydralazine, Ca channel blockers
- To avoid ACEI, ARBs in 2nd & 3rd Trimester- develop oligohydramnios, caused by decreased fetal renal function.
K) Hyperthyroidism
* 2 per 1000.
* Well Tolerated.
* Severe – spontaneous abortion.
* Treatment
-Propylthiouracil (choice) - can be associated with liver failure.(18TH EDITION)
-Methimazole (crosses placenta more).
-Can cause aplasia cutis.
-propylthiouracil in the first trimester and methimazole thereafter(18TH EDITION)
-KI, Beta blockers.
-Radio Iodine contraindicated.
*Easiest to control in 3rd Trimester & most difficult to treat in 1st trimester*
Hypothyroidism
* Thyroxine requirement increases as early as 5th wk by 30%.
* Increase the thyroxine dose by 30% as soon as pregnancy is diagnosed.
Entrance exam oriented Focus-
1)A new point in the 18th edition -TTP in pregnancy has been framed in AIPG-2012 exam.
2)The other new point regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in pregnancy is a potential one for the upcoming examinations!
EVIDENCES
Pregnant lady with low platelet – 50000- which is the least likely possibility?
I-2012
a. DIC
b. TTP
c. HELLP
d. Evan’s syndrome
ans-d
Which can be used in pregnancy [AIIM
Health in pregnancy
* Peripheral nerve disorder
* Bells palsy – 3 times more common in 3rd Trimester, post partum.
* Carpal tunnel syndrome. (median n)
* Meralgia paresthetica (lat. femoral cutaneous nerve)-AI-2007***
* Carpal Tunnel – pain worse in night
*Restless leg syndrome is the most common peripheral nerve and movement disorder in pregnancy. Disordered iron metabolism is the probable etiology. (18th EDITION)
*Maternal death is defined as the death occurring during pregnancy or within 42 days of completion of the pregnancy from a cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, but not from accident or incidental causes (18th EDITION)
Neoplasia During Pregnancy( a new chapter in 18th edition-all points given below are from 18th edition))
*The four cancers most commonly developing during pregnancy are
• cervical cancer
• breast cancer
• melanoma
• lymphomas (particularly Hodgkin's )
1)CA CERVIX
*Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has a low risk of progression to invasive cancer during pregnancy (0.4%) and many such lesions (36–70%) regress spontaneously postpartum
*Cone biopsy should not be done within 4 weeks of delivery.
*If the disease is microinvasive, vaginal delivery can take place and be followed by definitive treatment, usually conization.
* If a lesion is visible on the cervix, delivery is best done by caesarian section and followed by radical hysterectomy.
2)Pregnancy-associated breast cancer
*Defined as cancer detected during the pregnancy and up to 1 year after delivery
*45% in the second trimester
*70% of the breast cancers found in pregnancy are estrogen receptor–negative
*Pregnancy retains its protective effects in carriers of BRCA1 mutations
*pregnancy seems to increase the risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA2 mutations
*28–58% of the tumors express HER-2
*Even in pregnancy, most breast masses are benign (80% are adenoma, lobular hyperplasia, milk retention cyst, fibrocystic disease, fibroadenoma)
*Lumpectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is frequently used; fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide with either doxorubicin or epirubicin have been given without major risk to the fetus
*Methotrexate and other folate antagonists are to be avoided
*Trastuzumab are unsafe during pregnancy
*Estrogen increases 100-fold; progesterone increases 1000-fold during pregnancy
3)Melanoma During Pregnancy
* melanoma is not more aggressive during pregnancy
*ipilumimab (antibody to CTLA-4), and in those with BRAF mutation V600E, a BRAF kinase inhibitor
4)Hodgkin's Disease and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
*May be accompanied by B symptoms (fever, night sweats, unexplained weight loss).
*Women diagnosed in the second and third trimester can be treated safely with combination chemotherapy, usually doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD).
*If symptoms requiring treatment appear during the first trimester, evidence suggests that Hodgkin's disease symptoms can be controlled with weekly low-dose vinblastine
*Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are more unusual in pregnancy but are usually aggressive
5) Thyroid Cancer During Pregnancy
*Patients with follicular cancer or early papillary cancer can be observed until the postpartum period
*Patient on Radioactive iodine should not become pregnant for 6–12 months after treatment.
*Demand for thyroid hormone increases during pregnancy, and doses to maintain normal function may increase by 30–50%-Total T4 levels are higher during pregnancy
*The target TSH level is lower than 2.5 mIU/L.
6) Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
*Moles are the most common
* A previous molar pregnancy makes choriocarcinoma about 1000 times more likely to occur
*Partial moles result from fertilization of an egg by two sperm, resulting in diandric triploidy.*** (???AIIMS NOV-2013)
* Complete moles usually have a 46,XX genotype;
*95% develop by a single male sperm fertilizing an empty egg and undergoing gene duplication (diandric diploidy);
* 5% develop from dispermic fertilization of an empty egg (diandric dispermy)

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

Rashes

1st day- Rubella
2nd- chickenpox
3rd- small pox
4th- measles
5th- parvo B19~Erythema infectiosum
6th - HHV6~Exanthem subitum/Roseola infantum

Dukes Criteria

The Duke Criteria for Infective Endocarditis requires that a certain minimum criteria be present.
Infective endocarditis can be diagnosed based upon any of the following:
1. Two major criteria being met OR
2. One major and three minor criteria being met OR
3. Five minor criteria being met
Major criteria:
A. Positive blood culture for Infective Endocarditis (IE)
Typical microorganism that can cause IE from 2 separate blood cultures [Typical organisms include Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus bovis, Haemophilus (parainfluenzae, aphrophilus, paraphrophilus), Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae), OR Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus or enterococci, in the absence of a primary focus OR Microorganisms consistent with IE from "persistently positive" blood cultures meeting criteria of: 2 positive cultures with blood samples drawn >12 hours apart OR 3 of 3 or 3 of 4 separate blood cultures being positive (with first and last sample drawn 1 hour apart)
B. Evidence of endocardial involvement with either:
Positive echocardiogram for IE (with at least one of the items below) oscillating intracardiac mass on valve or supporting structures, in the path of regurgitant jets, or on implanted material in the absence of an alternative anatomic explanation OR Abscess OR New partial dehiscence of prosthetic valve New valvular regurgitation (worsening or changing of preexisting murmur not sufficient)
Minor criteria:
A. Predisposition to IE (Predisposing heart condition or intravenous drug use)
B. Fever (T> 38.0°C or >100.4°F)
C. Vascular phenomena [Major arterial emboli, septic pulmonary infarcts, mycotic aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, conjunctival hemorrhages, or Janeway lesions (non-tender, small erythematous or haemorrhagic macules or nodules in the palms or soles)]
D. Immunologic phenomena [Glomerulonephritis, Osler's nodes (small papule that is tender on the palmar finger pads or plantar toes), Roth's spots (Retinal hemorrhages with white or pale centers) and positive rheumatoid factor testing]
E. Microbiological evidence [Positive blood culture that does not meet a major criterion as noted above (however a single blood culture for coagulase negative staphylococci, diphtheroids or organisms that do not usually cause endocarditis does not count for this criteria) or serological evidence of active infection with an organism that is consistent with IE
F. Echocardiographic findings that are consistent with IE but do not meet the major criteria echocardiographically

Vaccine and strains-

BCG-DANNISH 1331

MEASLES-EDMONSTON ZAGREB, MORTON STRAIN,& SWARTZ STRAIN

MUMPS- JERRYL LYNN, LENIN GRAD STRAIN.

YELLOW FEVER- 17D STRAIN,ASIBI STRAIN & DAKAR STRAIN

RUBELLA- RA 27/3

VARICELLA- OKA STRAIN

DPT- PARK WILLIAM STRAIN FOR DIPHTERIA

JAPNESE ENCEPHALITIS- SA-14-14-2.

VITAMIN D NOMENCLATURE:

1. Cholecalciferol = Vit D3 = Calciol
2. Ergocalciferol = Vit D2
3. 25-hydroxycholecalciferol = Calcidiol
4. 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol = Calcitriol
Animal sources have Cholecalciferol
= Vit D3=Calciol
Plant sources have Ergocalciferol = Vit D2
MC source of Vit D = SUNLIGHT...
UV B causes Photoconversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the Stratum basale & spinosum into Cholecalciferol=Vit D3=Calciol

Monday, 15 July 2013

Gerstmann syndrome

Gerstmann syndrome is characterized by four primary symptoms:
1.Dysgraphia/agraphia: deficiency in the ability to write
2.Dyscalculia/acalculia: difficulty in learning or comprehending mathematics
3.Finger agnosia: inability to distinguish the fingers on the hand
4.Left-right disorientation

Sunday, 14 July 2013

Six types of Abnormal Breathing

1. KUSSMAUL BRATHING:
Deep, rapid respiration with no end-expiratory pause.
Causes profound hypocapnia
Seen in profound metabolic acidosis, i.e. diabetic
ketoacidosis
2.CLUSTER BREATHING:
Groups of irregular breathing with periods of apnea that occurs at irregular intervals
General a reflection of lesions in the low pons or upper medulla
Differs from cheyne-Stokes pattern because there is no increasing and decreasing depth of
respirations

3.CENTRAL NEUROGENIC HYPERVENTILATION:
Exhibits very deep and rapid respirations
Usually seen with lesions of the midbrain and upper pons
Respirations are generally regular and the PACO2
decrease due to the hyperventilation

4.BIOT's BREATHING:
Also called Ataxic breathing
Characterized by unpredictable irregularity
May be seen with respiratory depression and brain
damage at the level of the medulla
5.APNEUSTIC BREATING:

End-inspiration pause before expiration.
Reflection of Pontine damage.

6.CHEYNE STOKES BREATHING:
Tidal volume waxes and wanes cyclically with recurrent periods of apnea.
Causes include CNS dysfunction, cardiac failure with low cardiac output, sleep, hypoxia, profound
hypocapnia

INVESTIGATION OF CHOICE:

• Single Bone Metastasis – CT
• Multiple Bone Metastasis – Bone scan
• Spine Metastasis – MRI
• Avascular necrosis- MRI
• Bone Density/Osteoporosis- DEXA (Dual energy x ray absorptiometry)
• Aneurysm/ AV Fistula- Angiography
• Dissecting Aneurysm (Stable) - MRI,  (Unstable)-Trans oesophageal USG
• Pericardial Effusion- Echocardiography
• Lobulated pericardial effusion- MRI > CT
• Minimum Pericardial Effusion- Echocardiography
• Ventricular Function- Echocardiography
• Radiotherapy/Chemotherapy induced cardiotoxicity- Endomyocardial Biopsy
• Pulmonary Embolism- CECT> Pulmonary Angiography > V/Q Scan
• Interstitial lung disease(Sarcoidosis)- HRCT
• Bronchiectasis- HRCT scan
• Solitary Pulmonary Nodule- High resolution CT (HRCT)
• Posterior Mediastinal Tumor- MRI
• Pancoast Tumor (Superior Sulcus Tumor) – MRI
• Minimum Ascites/Pericardial effusion/Pleural effusion – USG
• Traumatic Paraplegia- MRI
• Posterior Cranial Fossa – MRI
• Acute Haemorrhage- CT
• Chronic Haemorrhage- MRI
• Intracranial Space Occupying Lesion- MRI
• Primary brain tumour- contrast MRI (Gold standard however remains to be biopsy)
• Metastatic brain tumor- (Gadolinium) contrast enhanced MRI
• Temporal Bone-CT
• SAH Diagnosis- unenhanced CT
• SAH aetiology- 4 vessel MR Angiography > CT Angiography > DSA
• Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma- CECT scan
• Acoustic neuroma- Gadolinium DTPA enhanced MRI
• Obstetrics- USG
• Calcifications- CT
• Blunt abdominal Trauma- CT
• Acute Pancreatitis- CT
• GERD- pH manometer > endoscopy
• Dysphagia- Endoscopy
• Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis- USG
• Extrahepatic biliary atresia- perioperative cholangiogram
• Obstructive Jaundice/GB Stones- USG
• Diverticulosis – barium enema
• Diverticulitis – CT scan
• Renal TB (early) – IVP,  (Late)- CT
• Posterior Urethral Valve- MCU
• Ureteric stone- non contrast CT
• Renal Artery Stenosis- Percutaneous Angiography
• Extraintestinal Amoebiasis- ELISA
• Discrete swelling(solitary nodule) of thyroid- FNAC

Disease /Terms Definition/Features/Seen in

Actinic keratosis Seen in Squamous Cell Carcinoma 

Albright's syndrome Characterized by Polycystic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, café-au-lait spots, short stature, seen in young girls 

Albumino-cytologic dissociation Seen in Guillain-Barre ( increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count). 

Alport's syndrome Characterized by Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness 

ABM-antibodies +nt in Goodpasture's syndrome 

Anti-centromere Ab +nt in Scleroderma (CREST) 

Anti-ds DNA
Ab (ANA antibodies) +nt in SLE (type III hypersensitivity)
Anti-epithelial cells Ab +nt in Pemphigus vulgaris 

Anti-gliadin Ab +nt in Celiac disease
Anti-IgG Ab +nt in Rheumatoid arthritis
Anti-mitochondrial Ab +nt in primary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-neutrophil Ab +nt in Vasculitis
Anti-platelet Ab +nt in Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Special bodies

Aschoff bodies --Rheumati c fever
Lewy bodies -- parkinsoinsm
Heinz bodies -- G6PD def
Gama gandy bodies -- congestive splenomegaly
Rushton bodies -- Odontogenic cysts
Reilly bodies -- hurler syndrome
Oken body -- Mesonephros
Moot bodies -- Multiple myeloma
Mooser bodies --Endemic typhus
Zebra bodies- - Meta chromatic leucodystrophy
Ross bodies- - Syphilis

Saturday, 13 July 2013

Poisoning Lines

Aldrich-mees lines- Arsenic
Burtonian line- Lead
Beaus line- Chronic systemic diseases
Claptons line-Copper
Muehrcke line -Hypoproteinemia

WHO criteria for semen( 2013 )

Semen volume: 1.5 ml
Total sperm in the ejaculate: 39 million
Sperm per ml: 15 million/ml
Vitality: 58% live
Progressive motility: 32%
Total Motility: 40%
Morphologically Normal: 4%

Types of endocrine stimuli

Differentials of headache

Nerves

*CN which is the smallest -- olfactory n.*
*CN which enters cerebrum directly - olfactory nerve*
*CN with longest intracranial (subarachnoid) course -- trochlear n*
*CN which emerges posterior to brain stem- trochlear nerve* 
*CN with dorsal exit -- trochlear n.* 
*CN which is the largest and thickest -- trigeminal n.*
*CN which is largest -- trigeminal nerve**CN with longest extracranial course --vagus n.*
*CN having longest intraosseous course -- facial nerve*
*CN with longest ( intradural )course - abducent nerve* 
*CN passing through cavernous sinus -- abducent nerve*
*CN involved in raised intracranial tension -- abducent nerve *
*Abducent nerve has the longest intra-cranial INTRADURAL course!!*
*Thickest nerve is SCIATIC nerve*
*Thickest cutaneous nerve is GREATER OCCIPITAL nerve*
*Labourer’s nerve-median nerve*
*Dentist’s nerve-inferior alveolar nerve*
*Alderman’s nerve-auricular branch of vagus nerve*
*Nerve of laterjet-largest gastric branch of vagus nerve*

Friday, 12 July 2013

SUBSTANCES RICH IN

Vit A and D -halibut oil.
Vit B1- gingelly seeds
Vit B2-- sheep liver oil
Vit C-- indian gooseberry
Iron -pistachio
Calcium -ragi.

Pathognomic Signs

1. COPD - Barrel-Chested
2. Pneumonia - Greenish Rusty Sputum
3. Pernicious Anemia - Beefy Red Tongue (Schilling’s Test)
4. Kawasaki Diseases - Strawberry Tongue
5. Typhoid - Rose Spot
6. Tetany - Chvostek Sign (Muscle Twitching Face) - Trosseau’s Sign (Jerky Mov’ts)
7. Pancreatitis - Cullen Sign (Bluish discoloration preumbilical area)
8. Appendicitis
- McBurney’s Point (rebound tenderness)
- Rovsing Sign (RLQ pain w/ palpation in LLQ)
- Psoas Sign(pain on lying down putting pressure on MB pt)
9. Thrombophlebitis - Homan’s Sign
10. Hepatitis - Icteric Sclera (yellowish discoloration of sclera)
11. Meningitis
- Burdzinski Sign (Pain on nape)
- Karnig Sign (pain on leg/ knee area)
12. Pyloric Stenosis - Olive-Shaped Mass
13. Hyperthyroidism - Exopthalmus
14. Addison’s Disease. - Bronze-like skin
15. Cushing Syndrome- Boffalo Hump
16. Cholera - Rice Watery Stool
17. SLE - Butterfly Rashes
18. Leprosy - Leoning Face (contracted face)
19. Bulimia Nervosa - Chipmunk Face
20. Liver Cirrhosis - Spider Angioma
21. Asthma - Wheezing Inspiration
22. Hyperpituitarism - CAROTENEMIA (Discoloration of skin) XANTHAMIA
23. Down Syndrome- Single Crease on Palm
24.TOF - Ventricular Septal Defect , Pulmonary Stenosis, Overriding of Aorta , Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
25.Cataract - Blurry Vision / Hizzy Vision
26.Glucoma - Tunnel-like Vision
27. PTB - Low grade fever in the evening
28. Cholecystitis- Murphy’s Sign (pain RUQ)
29. Myasthemia Gravis (MG) – Ptosis (inability to open upper eyelids)
30. Dengue - Petechiae
31. Parkinson’s Diease. - Pill Rolling Tremors
32. Measles - Koplick’s Spot