Monday, 18 November 2019

Respiratory System One liners

Respi system oneliners

[1] Creola bodies
In Bronchial asthma, air way epithelium is sloughed into bronchial lumen in form of CREOLA BODIES

[2] Asteroid body or Schaumann body
Nonspecific birefringent crystalline bodies in sarcoid granulomas.

[3] PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE primary causes:
[A] Good pasture syndrome
[2] Microscopic polyangitis
[C] Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

[4] Hypersensitivity pneumonitis : Important examples :-
[A] Bagassosis =  due to T actinomycetes from moldy bagasse (sugarcane)
[B] Bird fancier,s , breeder's , handler's lung = bird proteins from avian droppings.
[C] Farmers lung = T actinomycetes from moldy hey
[D] Malt workers lung = Aspergillus fumigatus from moldy barley

[5] Hypersensitivity pneumonits = Both type III and type IV hypersensivity reaction

[6] Caplan syndrome = Seropositive rheumatoid arthiritis + Progressive massive fibrosis
Initially it was described in coal workers but subsequebntly found in variety of pneumoconioses

[7] Byssinosis = (typical description to identify q) = is charecterised clinically by occasional in early stage and then regular (late stage) chest tightness toward the end of the first day of workweek (" MONDAY CHEST TIGHTNESS")

[8] Asbestosis usually affects lower lobe first then spreads upwards as disease becomes more severe whereas silocosis coal workers pneumoconiosis usually affects upper lobe.

[9] Presence of hilar lymphedenopathy or calcified hilar lymphnode " egg shell calcification" in a pneumoconioses is more suggestive of SILICOSIS among all other pneumoconiosis

[10] The single most useful clinical sign of the severity of pneumonia is ?
Ans = respiratory rate >30 /min [ref : hson]
Other scoring methods for severity of pneumonia= [a] CURB score [b] PORT risk class

[11] Guessing most likely etiological agent of pneumonia by radiological finding
[A] upper lobe cavity = tb
[B] pneumatocoele = s pneumoniae
[C] air fluid level = abscess = polymicrobial
[D] ***  CRESCENT SIGN in lung = Aspergillosis

[12] Pneumonia + hyponatremia = legionella pneumonia
[13] Hecht's pneumonia= interstitial giant cell pneumonia = measeles

[14] Triads 
SAMTER TRIAD = asthma + allergy + nasal polyposis
KARTARGENERS SYNDROME = situs inversus + bronchiectasis + sinusitis

[15] Friedlanders pneumonia = kleibsiella pneumonia = bulging fissure sign



🔹 Peri conceptional folic acid
🔹Administer corticosteroids in preterm labour and Antibiotics for PROM
🔹Delayed cord clamping and vit K at birth
🔹 care of healthy newborn by ASHA for 6 wks (42 days)
🔹 care of small/sick Newborn (like inj. Gentamicin to prevent sepsis to be given by ANM)
🔹 care beyond Newborn survival

- Screen for 4 Ds  i.e. Defects or birth defects, development delays, deficiency, diseases
- Follow up of SNCU babies by ASHA for 1 year and LBW babies for 2 year

Kindly correct previous one - LBW for 2 years

Ischaemic time

Neuron 3-5 min
Cardiac musc 20 min
Peripheral nerve 8 hrs
Skeletal musc 24 hrs
Bone 72 hrs

Age in days and development

Age in days and development events : 

1. 2 days – Embryo at 2 cell stage

2. 3 days – Morula is formed

3. 4 days – Blastocyst is formed

4. 8 days – Bilaminar disc is formed

5. 14 days – Prochordal plate & primitive streak seen

6. 16 days - Intra-embryonic mesoderm is formed / Disc is three germ layers

DOC Cancers

* DOC for CLL-- Fludarabin
* DOC for Brain Tumors- Temozolamide
* DOC for Pancreatic Carcinoma-- Gemcitabine
* DOC for Choriocarcinoma- Methotrexate
* DOC for Colorectal cancer-- 5-FU
*DOC for Hairy Cell Leukemia- Cladribine
*Drugs of choice for Wenger's granulomatosis-- Cyclophosphamide
*DOC for Multiple Myloma-- Bortezomib

Pregnancy Hormones

LH surge tends to occur at around 3 AM.

2. Ovulation occurs in morning between (midnight and 11 AM) in Spring

3. Ovulation occurs in evening between (4 PM and 7 PM ) in Autumn and winter .

4. Ovulation occurs more frequently from Right Ovary

5. Ovulation occurs alternatively between the two ovaries in younger women

6. In women more than 30 yrs age .. ovulation occurs frequently from the same ovary.

Remember :

1. The primitive germ cells takes origin from Yolk sac at 3rd week of gestation and migrate to the Genital ridge by 4th week of gestation .

2. 1st meiotic division – arrested in Prophase – completed just prior to Ovulation releasing the 1st polar body.

3. 2nd meiotic division – arrested in Metaphase – completed at the time of fertilization releasing the 2nd Polar body.

4. Also, Primary Oocyte – 44XX; Secondary Oocyte – 22X;

5. Primary Oocyte(44X) – undergoes 1st meotic division – Arrested in prophase –completed just prior to ovulation – releases First polar body (22X) + Secondary Oocyte (22X)

6. Secondary Oocyte (22X) – 2nd meiotic division – Arrested in Metaphase – At the time of fertilization – releases Second Polar Body (22X) + Ovum (22X)

7. In Males : Primary spermatocyte (44XX) – undergoes 1st meiotic division – forms secondary spermatocytes (2 in number)

8. Secondary spermatocytes (22X) (2 in number) – undergoes 2nd meiotic division –forms Spematids (22X)(4 in number)

9. Spermatids undergoes transformation as spermeiogenesis – forms Sperma (4 in number)

10. Developmental process from Spermatogoonia to Sperma takes 74 days (Some books 61days)and entire process till the transit to the ductal system takes 90 days (3 months)

11. So, in case of infertility of males the repeat sperm analysis is done after 3 months.

MCQs on Immunoglobulins

Only heat labile.immunoglobulin?-igE
Maximum concentration ig?-igG
Maximum weight?igM
Lowest weight?igG
Lowesr concentration?igE
Maximum intravascular ig?-igM
Maximum extraravascular ig?-igA